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Full text of "Eleven mental texts standardized"

LIBRARY 

Walter E. Fernald 
State School 







Waverley, Massachusetts 

no »4-I3 - 3 Q 



STATE OF NEW YORK 
STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND ALIEN POOR 




THE BUREAU OF ANALYSIS AND INVESTIGATION 



Eleven Mental Tests Standardized 



EUGENICS AND SOCIAL WELFARE BULLETIN 

No,V 



THE CAPITOL, ALBANY, NEW YORK 
W5 



THE STATE BOARD OF CHAKITIES 

1915 



COMMISSIONERS 

First Judicial District— WILLIAM R. STEWART, 31 
Nassau street, New York City. 

New York City.— STEPHEN SMITH, M. D., West End 
avenue and 76th street. 

New York City.— THOMAS M. MULRY, 51 Chambers 
street. 

New York City.— HERMAN RIDDER, 182 William street. 

Second Judicial District— J. RICHARD KEVIN, M. D., 
252 Gates avenue, Brooklyn. 

Third Judicial District— SIMON W. ROSENDALE, 57 
State street, Albany. 

Fourth Judicial District— FRANK F. GOW, M. D., Schuy- 
lerville, 'Saratoga county. 

Fifth Judicial District— CEYLON H. LEWIS, 20 White 
Memorial Building, Syracuse. 

Sixth Judicial District— DANIEL WAITE BURDICK, 
116 East State street, Ithaca, Tompkins county. 

Seventh Judicial District— HORACE McGUIRE, 910 Ger- 
man Insurance Building, Rochester. 

Eighth Judicial District— WILLIAM H. GRATWICK, 
1604 Marine Bank Building, Buffalo. 

Ninth Judicial District— HENRY MARQUAND, Bedford 
Hills, Westchester county. 

Officers 

WILLIAM RHINELANDER STEWART, President. 

SIMON W. ROSENDALE, Vice-President, 

ROBERT W. HEBBERD, Secretary. 

ROBERT W. HILL, Superintendent of State and Alien Poor. 

RICHARD W. WALLACE, Superintendent of Inspection. 

General Office: The Capitoe, Albany, N. Y. 



GERTRUDE E. HALL, Ph. D., Director, Bureau of Analysis 
and Investigation. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Introduction 7 

The Tests 

1. Form-board 18 

2. Construction test A 26 

3. Construction test B 33 

4. Drinking cup 42 

5. Motor coordination 50 

6. Cancellation 57 

7. Recognition memory 63 

8. Aussage 68 

9. Pictorial completion 74 

10. Telling time 70 

11. Antonyms 82 

Bibliography 86 

[5] 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Albany — Albany Orphan A ( sylum, Albany, 1ST. Y. 

Hudson — New York State Training School for Girls, Hudson, 
N. Y. 

Newark — State Custodial Asylum for Feeble-Minded Women, 
Newark, N. Y. 

Eome — Rome State Custodial Asylum, Home, N. Y. 

St. Vincent's — St. Vincent's Male Orphan Asylum, Albany, 
N. Y. 

Troy — Troy Orphan Asylum, Troy, N. Y. 

Mental age is given in Roman numerals, e. g. IX = nine years 
mentally. Physical age, used interchangeably with chronologi- 
cal age, is given in Arabic numerals, e. g. 9 = nine years physi- 
cally. 

Time is given in minutes (') and seconds ("). 

References to the bibliography are by number, e. g. (7). 

[6] 



FOREWORD 

The work reported in this bulletin has been in progress for two 
years, under the immediate guidance of Dr. Gertrude E. Hall, 
director in charge of the Bureau of Analysis and Investigation. 
Four investigators gathered the material and it was then reduced 
to statistical form by Investigator Marion Collins who is respon- 
sible for the tables and for most of the text. The conclusions are 
found on pages 16-17. 

EOBEKT W. HILL, 
Superintendent of State and Alien Poor. 

The Capitol, Albany, BT. Y., June 1, 1915. 

[3] 



INTRODUCTION 



The connection of the Bureau of Analysis and Investigation 
with the problems of psychology is established in the rules adopted 
in 1911 by the State Board of Charities for the guidance of the 
Bureau in its work. Three of the ten purposes of the Bureau are 
here quoted: 

" To inform and aid the local officers in the execution of 
their duties connected with those whose dependency is due 
to defectiveness. 

" To get light on the causes of defectiveness. 

" To provide an accurate estimate, census, and permanent 
record of defectiveness in the State of New York, in order 
to inform officials and the public as to the need of further 
legislation and of further institutional provision for these 
classes. " 

These purposes are to be pursued so far as practicable by the 
following methods (two out of six sections quoted) : 

" By carrying on field work through special investigators 
studying the conditions of defectives already in institutions 
and of applicants for admission. 

" By carrying on the necessary special psychological studies 
into the mental condition of defectives in institutions and 
schools." 

In short the determination of the nature and causes of mental 
defectiveness requires of the Bureau at every step the application 
of the principles of psychology and since the method of their 
application is as yet only partially developed, it devolves upon the 
Bureau partly to develop its own criteria and thus aid in the 
standardization of the tests which are applicable to its work. 

[7] 



8 

A few psychologists claim that psychology is so undeveloped 
that its use for diagnosis of mental traits or for other practical 
purposes is unsafe. On the other hand Miinsterberg says (7, p. 

vii) : 

" The time seems ripe for bringing the psychological work 
into full contact with the practical efforts of civilization. 
The application of psychological studies to education and law, 
to industry and commerce, to health and hygiene, to art and 
science, deserves its place in the psychological curriculum. 
The processes which result from the social contact 
have traditionally been neglected, because individual psychol- 
ogy had to reach a certain completeness before the scientific 
interest could turn to social consciousness. But our day, 
which has seen the ripening of applied psychology, has 
brought us also to the rapid growth of social psychology, and 
its outlines ought to be drawn in any map of the psychological 
world." 

A good beginning in the practical application of psychology 
has been made by investigators in Europe and America, but for 
diagnostic purposes probably the most useful contribution is the 
Binet-Simon Measuring Scale for Intelligence, which has been 
heralded as the dawn of a new era. Its enthusiastic reception 
has, however, been accompanied by criticism and this has led to 
the conclusion that the tests above ten years are less successful 
than those for the lower years, and that alternate questions are 
needed to parallel the whole series. The Binet-Simon tests used 
in the present study were a slightly modified 1908 form at first, 
and later the 1911 American revision. It is believed that the 
final grading from the two blanks is approximately the same, ex- 
cept that the greater number of questions above XI in the latter 
permits higher scoring. Discussion of the value of the Binet- 
Simon tests is deferred until a larger body of data shall have been 
gathered. 



In the choice of other tests the Bureau was influenced by its 
own peculiar needs: (1) Its work is state-wide and not confined 
to a permanent laboratory, hence its apparatus must be simple and 
portable; (2) the State Board of Charities deals partly with deaf- 
mutes, the blind and foreign-speaking people, therefore some of the 
tests must be independent of the use of language and of vision. 
The tests selected were: 

Test Author or designer Bibliographical references 

Form-board Seguin Goddard (2) 

Sylvester (10) 
Wallin (11) 
Whipple (13) 

Construction test A Healy and Freeman Healy and Fernald (5) 

Knox (6) 

Construction test B Fernald and Healy Healy and Fernald (5) 

Knox (6) 

Drinking cup Bureau of Analysis and Investigation 

Motor coordination Healy and Whipple Healy and Fernald (5) 

Cancellation Woodworth and Wells. . . Fernald (1) 

Whipple (12) 

Woodworth and Wells (14) 

Recognition memory Fernald Fernald (1) 

Aussage* Binet Healy and Fernald (5) 

Whipple (12) 

Pictorial completion Healy Healy (4) 

Telling time Bureau of Analysis and Investigation 

Antonyms! Thorndike Healy and Fernald (5) 

* A German word meaning statement. 

t Words directly opposed to others in meaning. 

Material. — The materials used were uniform, and were pur- 
chased from the supply houses which prepare psychological ma- 
terial, in so far as they could be so purchased. A full description 
is given under each test. 



10 



SCHEDULE A 

Physical Age Distribution of Persons Tested 











Number 


Tested 








PHYSICAL AGE 


Newark 


Rome 


Troy 


Albany 


Hudson 


St. Vin- 
cent's 


Public 
school 


Total 


5 




1 

1 
3 
1 

4 

7 

8 

16 

11 

12 

13 

9 

7 

11 

5 

8 

7 

5 

3 

6 

4 

3 

4 

1 

1 

3 

2 

1 
1 
2 
2 


3 

22 

23 

24 

22 

24 

29 

23 

20 

11 

5 

2 

2 


11 

10 

14 

19 

24 

18 

14 

15 

4 

4 

1 


1 
7 
12 
26 
40 
49 
35 
23 
15 


1 
17 

19 
22 
29 
34 
32 
40 
38 
42 
25 
6 


30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 


4 


6 


51 


7 


82 


8 


90 


9 


101 


10 




115 


11 




110 


12 




108 


13 




84 


14 




76 


15 




68 


16 


1 
4 
4 

11 

15 
9 

10 
9 
6 

10 
8 

22 
3 
8 

11 
4 

11 
5 
3 
3 
2 
3 
2 
1 


66 


17 


66 


18 


51 


19 


47 


20 


39 


21 


16 


22 


21 


23 


14 


24 


14 


25 


17 


26 


13 


27 


25 


28 


9 


29 


12 


30 


14 


31 


8 


32 


12 


33 


6 


34 


3 


35 


6 


36 


4 


37 


3 


39 


2 


40 


1 


41 


1 


44 


1 


46 


2 


47 


1 


3 






Total 


166 


162 


210 


134 


208 


305 


180 


1,365 







The Subjects. — Thirteen hundred and sixty-five persons were 
tested, ranging in age from five to forty-seven years, as shown in 
Schedule A. The data were gathered from six institutions and 
from one selected group of public school children in the following 
order : 

1. State Custodial Asylum for Feeble-Minded Women, 

Newark, 1ST. Y. 

Here the details of the method were worked out, the 1908 form 
of the Binet-Simon test being used and all the other tests except 
motor coordination and telling time. From a population of about 
790, 166 of the brighter and for the most part younger inmates 



11 

were tested. As all the subjects had previously been diagnosed 
as feeble-minded, the purpose of the work was to study the effir 
cacy of the tests and the reactions of mental defectives to them. 

2. Rome State Custodial Asylum, Rome, N. Y. 

The cases were selected to form a group of males comparable to 
the females at Newark. The age distribution shows a wider range 
than at Newark (Schedule A), with more than half of the cases 
under 20. The same tests as at Newark were used with the excep- 
tion of the pictorial completion test. 

3. Public School, Albany, N. Y. 

This school draws from one of the best residential sections in the 
city although on the outskirts of its territory are several poorer 
streets and a " hollow ". Thirty children of each age from 7 
through 12 were tested with the complete list except motor coor- 
dination and telling time; the children selected were those who 
were considered normal in their school work, and had been pro- 
moted at the beginning of the school year ; and classification was 
made by physical and not mental age. As a control experiment 
this did not fulfill expectations as in almost every test the 9 year 
old children show a better average than those 10 years old, and the 
12 year old children are no better than those of 11 years. 

4. Troy Orphan Asylum, Troy, N. Y. 

In this modern, well-conducted institution on the congregate 
plan, all the children over 5 were tested, also 3 who were 5 
years old, a total of 210 children. They were given the 1908 
Binet-lSimon tests, and all the others except construction test 
A. The purpose was double', (a) a further study of the tests, 
(b) a study of orphan asylum children. 



5. Albany Orphan Asylum, Albany, N. Y. 

This orphan asylum is built on the cottage plan, and the life of 
the children approaches that of the normal home. All the chil- 
dren 6 years of age or over were tested, 134 in all. The same 
tests were used as at Troy, except that very early in the work the 
1911 American revision of the Binet-Simon tests was put in 



12 



use. The object of the work was dual, as in Troy, to test the tests 
and to study the children. 

6. New York State Training School for Girls, 

Hudson, K Y. 

This school receives upon court commitment girls not over 16 
years of age. Here the data on the tests were secondary, as the 
work was primarily for the mental diagnosis of girls who failed 
to profit as they ought by the training of the school. In all 208 
girls, ranging in age from 12 to 20 years were tested, at three 
different times, during which both forms of the Binet-Simon scale 
and all the other tests were used. 

7. St. Vincent's Male Orphan Asylum, Albany, ~N. Y. 

In this congregate institution for boys there is a tendency to 
keep the boys longer than in the other two orphan asylums, as 
shown in Schedule A. As the testing was done at two different 
times 305 children were included, a few more than were actually 
there at one time. The full series of tests was used with the 1911 
form of the measuring scale. 

The Examiners. — Four investigators of the Bureau of Analysis 
and Investigation gave the tests; all worked under the same 
directions and conscientious effort was made to have the work 
uniform. The assignments of work and the number of cases 
contributed by each are shown in Schedule B. It will be noted 
that in four of the groups two or more investigators are responsible 
for the results, while three institutions were done, each by a dif- 
ferent investigator. 

SCHEDULE B 

Showing the Distribution of Work Among the 

Investigators 



investigator 


Newark 


Rome 


Public 
school 


Troy 


Albany 


Hudson 


St. Vin- 
cent's 


Total 


Bingham 


36 
130 


162 


74 
106 


199 
11 


134 


18 

77 

113 


305 


290 


Collins 


512 


Conway 


145 


Herrick 


418 






Total 


166 


162 


180 


210 


134 


208 


305 


1,365 







13 



The work in each institution and school was conducted in a 
quiet, pleasant room, free from interruptions, a table and two 
chairs being the only essential furniture. The score sheet, shown 
in Schedule C, was set up on the multigraph with generous spacing 
for the records and revised to meet any variation in the require- 
ments. The antonyms were printed on the Binet-Simon blanks. 



SCHEDULE C 
State Board of Charities 

Department of State and Alien Poor — Bureau of Analysis and 

Investigation 



NAME 
DATE 

FORM-BOARD 
1st Time 



PHYSICAL AGE 



2nd 



CONSTRUCTION TEST A 
CONSTRUCTION TEST B 
DRINKING CUP 
MOTOR COORDINATION 



Time 

Time 

Time 

1st Squares 
2nd Squares 
Time 

Chosen 



WHERE EXAMINED 

MENTAL AGE SCHOOL GRADE 

3rd 

Moves 
Moves 
Moves 
Errors 
Errors 
Errors 

Correct 
Descriptive 



Efficiency 
Efficiency 



Errors 



Interpretative 



Somewhat 


Very 


suggestible 


suggestible 


Reasonable 


Not reasonable 


2 


3 4 



CANCELLATION 
RECOGNITION MEMORY 
AUSSAGE 

Response — Enumerative 

Details — No. correct from free recital 
No. correct from questioning 
No. erroneous 
No. imagined 

Not 

Suggestibility suggestible 

PICTORIAL COMPLETION Errors 
TELLING TIME 1 



The Function of Mental Tests. — At best mental tests are merely 
instruments for tbe analysis of mental capacity, and consequently 
the reaction to a test is always more significant than the mere fact 
of success or failure. For example the statement that Mary 
Smith succeeded in making the drinking cup shows that she was 
able to follow the five directions, but if a note follows : " She failed 
to make the drinking cup on the first trial because of poor attention 
to directions, but was resourceful enough to detect and correct 
her mistake by observing the finished product on the table," it 



14 

indicates the quality of her power of attention and her ability to 
perceive an error and correct it. The analysis of the reaction re- 
quires both skill and experience on the part of the examiner. Any 
person with an ordinary amount of intelligence and sufficient tact 
to persuade the subject to cooperate can apply the tests according 
to printed directions, and record the fact of success or failure ; but 
this is not sufficient, for practically the whole value of the work 
is lost unless the investigator has keen powers of observation, an 
analytical mind, a background of experience, and the human 
sympathy and constructive imagination to interpret correctly the 
thought and emotional life of the subject. 

Laboratory examination is not the only way of testing persons 
to decide whether or not they are feeble-minded, but it is the 
quickest way and when it is further developed should be by far 
the most precise. It requires no special effort after prolonged 
contact, for those familiar with the traits of feeble-mindedness to 
tell whether or not a person is mentally deficient, but when a 
person is before a committing officer, or in many other exigencies, 
it mav be desirable to know immediately his mental ability, and 
to attain this knowledge quickly and accurately requires the use 
of standardized tests and laboratory methods. A laboratory ex- 
periment succeeds if it enables the investigator to determine 
within a practical length of time the mental development and 
general character of a person, which under ordinary circum- 
stances could be interpreted accurately only after prolonged 
acquaintance. 

Treatment. — A chapter is devoted to each of the eleven tests, 
in which the material is described, the method of presentation 
given, typical reactions cited and the method of scoring illustrated. 
The tabulation of data varies somewhat from chapter to chapter, 
for the effort was always made to present only those tables which 
throw light on the test. So large a number of the persons tested 
were backward or feeble-minded, that the tabulation of the data 
by physical ages alone would be misleading ; hence the classification 
by mental ages was used. The change from the 1908 to the 1911 
form of the Binet test is unfortunate as regards absolute pre- 
cision, but probably this was more than compensated in the 
accuracy of the results, by the opportunity afforded the older 



15 



children who were tested last, especially the St. Vincent's Male 
Orphan Asylum cases, to attain, if they were able, a mental age 
more nearly approximating their physical age. The results of 
each institutional group are given, and where these correspond 
for given mental or physical ages, it is considered an evidence of 
the reliability of the test. The Newark, Eome and Troy averages 
by mental ages are based on the 1908 Binet-Simon tests, the 
Albany and St. Vincent's on the 1911 form, and the Hudson 
averages on both. In those tests, notably motor coordination, in 
which the results appear to depend more upon physical than on 
mental development, the data are arrayed on a physical basis. 
Each chapter closes with a judgment as to the value of the test. 
•Schedule D shows the subjects classified according to their 
mental ages. As the school children were not given the Binet- 
Simon tests they are omitted from this schedule. A summary of 
the tests concludes the introduction. 

SCHEDULE D 

Mental Age Distribution" of Persons Tested 



MENTAL AGE 


Newark 


Rome 


Troy 


Albany 


Hudson 


St. Vin- 
cent's 


Total 


IV 


6 

5 

11 

17 

40 
44 
26 
14 
3 


4 

8 

10 

33 

39 

44 

11 

8 

5 


1 
12 
15 
26 
24 
46 
41 
29 
7 
9 


4 
7 
18 
23 
26 
23 
17 
13 
3 


2 
11 
31 
52 
56 
31 
12 
13 


1 
8 
20 
51 
45 
61 
40 
35 
10 
33 
1 


12 


V 


37 


VI 


63 


VII 


147 


V II 


182 


IX 


252 


X 


193 


XI 


159 


XII 


69 


XII + 


57 


XV 




14 








Total 


166 


162 


210 


134 


208 


305 


*1 185 







* 180 school childrsn were not given the Binet-Simon tests and hence are not included in this 
schedule. 



16 



SUMMAEY OF THE TESTS 



1. The Form-Board: 

Imbeciles are noticeably slower than young children of cor- 
responding mental age. 

As a special age test it indicates a IX year mentality when 
done in 18 seconds. 

2. Construction Test A: 

Normal 9 year old children should succeed with it. 

3. Construction Test B : 

Success may be expected from normal 11 year old children or 
from an XI year mentality. 

5. Drinking Cup: 

Normal 10 year old children should succeed with it. A few 
children know how to fold it. 

5. Motor Coordination : 

Success depends upon physical as well as mental development. 

At 12 years the normal child should make a record of 60 

squares. 
At 17 years one should tap 80 squares with not more than 2 

errors. 

6. Cancellation: 

A child of 11 years should do the test in 2 minutes with not 

more than 1 error. 
At 13 years the time should be lowered to 1% minutes. 

7. Kecognition Memory: 

The test in the form used by the Bureau is too hard. 

8. Aussage: 

Young children confine themselves to enumeration, older chil- 
dren give description and children over 12, interpretation. 

For children over 9 years of age it is useful for gauging 
suggestibility. 



17 

Feeble-minded children are more suggestible than normal chil- 
dren of corresponding mental age. 

9. Pictorial Completion: 

Normal children succeed better than defective children of the 

same mental age. 
In general mental defectives do not succeed with it. 

10. Telling Time: 

Persons of XI year mentality know how to tell time, independ- 
ently of special teaching. 

11. Antonyms: 

By the substitution of three easier words for the three hardest 
ones this should be distinctly a 12 year old test. 

It calls for abstract thought which usually indicates mature 
mental development. 



18 



1. THE FORM-BOARD 

Description of Test and Material. — The form-board used is 
of the standard type, a board 13% by 18% inches, recessed to 
hold 10 blocks of different geometrical design, % of an inch in 
thickness, which project % of an inch above the surface of the 
board (Figure 1). In referring to the board the system of num- 
bering the blocks and their corresponding recesses beginning with 
the cross as number 1 has been used. A stop-watch is used for 
timing the reactions. 

Method of Presentation, — According to Whipple, (13, p, 297) 
the correct method is to place the board, with the cross in the 
upper left-hand corner, on the table in front of the subject; and 
the blocks on the table at the right of the board in the following 
order : 

(2) triangle, (4) circle, (10) square, 

(Board) (7) lozenge, (9) oval, (6) hexagon, 

(5) oblong, (8) star, (3) half -circle, (1) cross. 

The blocks are to be replaced in the order: 5, 8, 3, 1, 7, 9, 
6, 2, 4, 10, using only one hand. Wallin (11, p. 74) placed the 
board in the same position but threw the blocks into a heap on the 
table at the top of the board. He told his subjects to use only 
one hand. After extended investigation Sylvester (10, p. 12) 
concluded that the blocks should lie in three piles at the top of 
the board with no block in the pile nearest its recess, the lozenge 
and the hexagon in different layers, and the star not at the top 
of any pile. The method used by the Bureau follows Goddard 
(2) and differs from those above in that the blocks are scattered 
at the right of the board within easy reach. The subject, stand- 
ing at the front of the board, is told that there is a place for 
each block and that he is to put them in as quickly as he can; 
after trying one or two to learn the method he begins the first 
trial. He is then encouraged to believe that he can do it faster 
and is given two more trials. The time is recorded in each trial. 

Typical Reactions. — In this test there is a difference between 
the performance of the normal and the feeble-minded child. 



19 

Bright young children work slowly and carefully, while defectives 
of the same mental age often manifest confusion and lack of 
reasoning, a quality which Sylvester grades as lack of "poise." 
A not unusual reaction is the attempt to crowd blocks by main 
force into impossible spaces; and the confusion of the star 
and the cross, due probably to a vague consciousness that both 
shapes are unusual, with a lack of differentiation between the 
two. The unusualness of the shape as well as a possible appeal 
to the aesthetic sense may account for the interest that these 
blocks excite, for either one or the other is almost invariably 
chosen by the defective for the first trial. It sometimes happens 
that the feeble-minded subject tries to place a form in its proper 
recess, but because of faulty manipulation the block is placed only 
with painful labor and after a long struggle. With morons as 
with normal persons the reactions indicate personal characteristics, 
from those who place the blocks without noise, confusion or false 
moves, to those who unthinkingly try the same block in many 
recesses before the correct one is found. 

Method of scoring. — In scoring credit is given for the best 
time in three trials. In addition to the time, the number of 
false moves and the method of work are recorded. In two of 
the institutions the graphic method of recording used by God- 
dard, Whipple and Sylvester was employed. In this each block 
is numbered according to its position on the board. If the sub- 
ject picks up number 2 and places it in the space for 2 the first 
line of the score sheet reads, " 2-2." If, however, he attempts 
to put number 2 into the hole that belongs to number 8, then 
tries it in 3 and finally places it in 2, the record reads, " 2-8-3-2." 
In this way all the blocks are recorded. A line that begins 
and ends with the same numeral denotes that the block has finally 
been placed correctly. If a block is tried in its proper hole but 
not fitted in, the move is recorded by 0, and if a block is removed 
after it has been placed the move is shown by a line drawn 
through the numeral. A low grade case might have a record for 
one block like " 8-l-2-0-7-$-l-8," which signifies that after trying 
the star in the space for the cross, then in the one for the tri- 
angle, he tried it in its own space, but failing to get it in, tried 
it in the lozenge hole, then finally fitted it into the star space, 



20 



but afterward took it out, tried it again in the cross, put it back 
into its own space and left it there. The advantage of this 
method of scoring is that it furnishes a complete picture of the 
work done by the subject. If the examiner has in mind the 
number that is associated with each form and is accustomed to 
the use of the stop watch, both the time and the number of moves 
may be recorded without great difficulty. 

Tabulation. — After an extended study Sylvester found that 
the average of the best time in three trials gave the smoothest 
curve and was therefore probably the best, but that for the pic- 
ture of the individual child, his time and method of work for 
the first trial — without instructions — should be noted, and then, 
after any necessary instruction had been given, the shorter time 
of the next two performances recorded. This last method is 
practically the same as the first, since it is seldom that the first 
trial is better than either of the others. He also found that there 
is little improvement in the fourth or fifth trials, hence these 
may be disregarded. 

The work of others is compared with the norms obtained by 
the Bureau. In Table 1 the average time of the normal chil- 
dren of Goddard, Sylvester and the Bureau are placed in juxta- 
position, while in Table 2 is given the average time of the groups 
by Goddard, Wallin and the Bureau classified according to 



mental ages. 



1. Table Showing Aveeage Time for Form-board Test at 
Different Chronological Ages 





Goddard's Normals 


Sylvester's Group 


Bureau's Public 
School Group 


age 


Number 
tested 


Average 
time 


Number 
tested 


Average 
time 


Number 
tested 


Average 
time 




17 
26 
25 
28 
47 
49 
38 
20 


Seconds 
29.5 
27.5 
24 . 5 
21.8 
19.3 
18.2 
17. G 
15.9 


80 
170 
173 
203 
214 
22 i 
172 
141 
80 
80 


Seconds 
37.6 
23.5 
23 . 3 
20 . 5 
18.7 
Hi. 7 
14.9 
13.8 
12.6 
11.6 


30 
33 
30 
30 
30 
30 


Seconds 








24 . 75 




20.54 




17.49 




17.10 




15.69 




13.99 
















Total 


250 




1,537 




180 









21 



2. Table Showing Average Time for Form-board Test at 

Different Mental Ages 





Goddard's 


Wallin's 
Group 


Bureau's 
Group 


MENTAL AGE 


nor: 


IALS 


DEFECTIVES 




Number 
tested 


Average 
time 


Number 
tested 


Average 
time 


Numbei 
tested 


Average 
time 


Number 
tested 


Average 
time 


IV 


7 
7 
13 
47 
43 
46 
69 
25 
14 


Seconds 
33.8 
30.3 
27.5 
25.4 
20.7 
19.2 
16.6 
15.9 
14.3 


53 
52 
54 
85 
87 
48 
29 
8 
4 


Seconds 
76.12 
51.25 
38.24 
26.39 
23 . 80 
18.30 
17.50 
16.40 
12 


12 

8 
22 
32 
54 
28 
82 
27 
11 
IS 


Seconds 
110.6 
84 
63.6 
32.5 
25.5 
20.9 
18.9 
16.1 
15 
14.4 


11 

32 

54 

126 

164 

232 

172 

145 

57 

56 


Seconds 
79.90 


V 


53 


VI 


35 . 03 


VII 


24 . 57 


VIII 


19.99 


IX 


16.95 


X 


15.30 


XI 


14.04 


XII 


12.94 


XII+ 


12 . 58 








Total 


371 




420 




294 




1,049 





In a footnote Sylvester (10, p. 54) states: " Formboard time 
records do not correlate well with Binet test results, children 
who are considerably retarded according to the Binet scale usu- 
ally being more successful at the formboard test than are normal 
children of corresponding Binet age.' 7 In Table 3 the form- 
board records of 649 orphan asylum children are averaged in 
mental groups according to whether they are advanced, at age, 
or retarded. While the advanced children tend to take a little 
longer and the retarded children a little shorter time than the 
" at age " children for each mental age, the span of divergence 
is usually not greater than the difference between the " at age " 
average for a given group and that for the age just above and 
just below. In general the retarded children fall between the 
u at age " children of their group and those of the next older 
group, while the advanced children fall between the " at age " 
children of their group and the next younger " at age " group. 
The general averages for each age group fall so close to the " at 
age" averages for the same group, especially from VI to XII 
that it seems fair to assume a degree of correlation between the 
form-board time records and the Binet-Simon test results. 



22 






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This conclusion is further sustained by comparing Sylvester's 
averages computed according to physical ages with the Bureau's 
averages computed on the basis of mental ages. 

4, Comparison or Sylvester's Averages by Physical Ages 
with the Bureau's Averages by Mental Ages 



Sylvester's Group 


Bureau's Group 


Physical age 


Form- 
board 
time 


Mental age 


Form- 
board 
time 


5 


37.6 
26.5 
23.3 
20.5 

18.7 
• 16.7 
14.9 
13.8 
12.6 


V 


*33 73 


6 


VI.. 


*28 65 


7 


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24 57 


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VIII 


19 99 


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16 95 


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14 04 


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* The records of 33 imbeciles in Roma and Newark were omitted from the averages. 

That normal children of the ages of 5 and 6 are much superior 
in their work to mental defectives of corresponding mental ages 
is demonstrated by the tables of Goddard and the averages of the 
Bureau. Goddard's normal children of the mental age of IV 
averaged 33.8", his defective children 76.12". The average for 
all the IV children of the Bureau was 79.9", all of them being 
defectives. In the mental age V Goddard's normal children had 
an average time of 30.3", the defectives of 51.25". From the 
records of the Bureau when the groups from Kome and Newark 
are separated from the orphan asylum children, the time of the 
normal children is 33.73", compared to 30.3" of Goddard and 
37.6" for Sylvester's normal children; the averages of the Home 
and Newark groups of the same ages are 60.98" compared to 
Goddard's 51". In VI Goddard's normals are 27.5", the Bureau's 
28.65", Sylvester's 26.5", while the defectives are, Goddard's 
38.24", the Bureau's 45.9". Beyond VI there is enough simi- 
larity in the results to lead to the conclusion that this difference 
no longer exists. 

Not only is it desirable to know the averages for each age, but 
the amount of variation which may be expected. The average 
and standard deviations are given in Table 5. 



24 



5. Average Time, Average Deviation and Standard Devia- 
tion for Each Mental Age 



mental age 


Average 
time 


Average 
deviation 


Standard 
deviation 




33.73 
28.65 
24.57 
19.99 
16.95 
15.30 
14.04 
12.94 
12.58 
12.66 


7.33 

5.74 
5.76 
3.92 
3.18 
2.27 
2.30 
1.85 
1.22 
2.39 


11.76 




10.83 




8.32 




5.57 




4.18 




3.05 




2.79 




2.61 




1.26 




3.00 







For V and VI the orphan asylum averages are used, excluding 
the averages from Kome and Newark. These are compared with 
Sylvester's in Table 4. 

In Table 6 is given the range of performance based upon the 

standard deviations. 



6. Expectations for Eorm-board Time at Each Mental Age 



mental age 



v.. 

VI.. 

VII.. 

VIII.. 

IX.. 

X.. 

XI.. 

XII.. 

XU + 

XV.. 




Seconds 
21.97 
17.82 
16.25 
14.42 
12.77 
12.25 
11.25 
10.33 
11.32 
9.66 



To 



Seconds 

45.49 
39. 4S 
32.89 
25.56 
21.13 
18.35 
16.83 
15.55 
13 . 84 
15.66 



25 

If it is desired to use the form-board as a special age test, it 
seems properly to be a test of IX mentality when done in 18". 
The figures to support this view are: 

1. The average time for 649 orphan asylum children was 
18.4". 

2. The average time of 9 year old children with IX year 
mentality was 18.3". 

3. The average time for 9 year old public school children 
was 17.49". 

4. Sylvester's 9 year old group averaged 18.7". 

5. Goddard's IX year defectives averaged 18.3". 

6. The Bureau's average for 232 subjects with IX mentality 
was 16.95". 

Value of the Test. — There seems to be no disagreement among 
the clinical psychologists as to the value of the form-board in giv- 
ing insight into the mental ability of the subject; on the other 
hand there seems to be little agreement as to what qualities the 
test measures. The reaction to the test, simple as it appears, in- 
volves form perception, coordination of hand and eye muscles and 
some ability to plan. It has been used to study method of 
approach and improvement by practice. Sylvester points out that 
a quality which he chooses to call " poise " is demonstrated. A 
point in favor of the test is its independence of formal educational 
advantages and of language. It is especially valuable in diagnostic 
work with young children where the Binet-Simon scale furnishes 
scanty means for classification; as a game with which to get ac- 
quainted with a child or a self-conscious older person it plays a 
valuable role. 



26 



2. CONSTKUCTION TEST A 

Description of Test and Material. — Construction test A is 
described by Healy (5) for whom it was sketched by Prof. F. N. 
Freeman, and is also used by Knox (6). Five restangular 
blocks of different sizes but of the same thickness, some of which 
are interchangeable, fit into a rectangular frame, the inside meas- 
urements of which are 3 inches by 4 inches. 

Method of Presentation. — JSTo directions are given further than 
that the pieces, which are scattered about on the table, will all go 
into the frame and exactly fill it. 

Typical Reactions. — In general the reactions to construction 
test A fall into three classes : 

1. Prompt fitting of all of the pieces into the space, the result 
of a definite plan. 

2. Trial and error method which may or may not result in 
success ; success may be as prompt as in the first method, if by 
a fortunate chance the first and second pieces fall into their 
correct positions, 

3. Complete failure. 

In many cases the subject finds, after one or two trial moves, 
that the largest piece will fit exactly along the end of the frame; 
pleased with his success he then tries the next largest piece in a 
parallel position. The alert individual, conscious that this move, 
since it leaves a small space between the edge of the frame and 
the block, is not in accordance with directions, rejects it. If he 
then places this piece correctly he is in a fair way to succeed, 
but if not he may make a number of random moves, he may 
begin all over again, or he may give up. Imbeciles are some>- 
times content to crowd some of the pieces into the frame on edge 
to get them all in, or to continue indefinitely in the repetition 
of purposeless moves. Even with the most aimless trial and error 
method, subjects sometimes persevere long enough to succeed. 

The purpose of the test is to show perception of form and 
method of work. Although there are, of course, individuals whose 



29 



8. Number of School Children Tested, Number and Per 
Cent. Successful, Average Time and Average Number 
of Moves 



AGE 


Number 
tested 


Number 
successful 


Per cent, 
successful 


Average 
time 


Average 

number of 

moves 


7 


30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 


15 
16 

29 
27 

27 
28 


50.0 
53.3 
96.6 
90.0 
90.0 
93.3 


Seconds 
126.8 
133.5 
95.9 
75.5 
48.5 
41.8 


26.5 


8 


34.1 


9 


25.0 


10 


21.0 


11 


17.4 


12 


17.1 







Knox (6, p. 15, Table 6) gives the following numbers of 8 year 
old children to whom the test was applied : 



NATIONALITY 


Number 
tested 


Number 
failed 


Number 
correct 


Number 

partly 

correct 

or with 

difficulty 


Italian 


65 
54 
46 
38 


12 
7 
9 

15 


45 
33 
21 
12 


8 


Hebrew 


14 


Polish 


16 




11 


Total* 


203 


43 

or 21% 


111 

or 55% 


49 




or 24% 



*The totals and per cents, are the Bureau's computation. 

The per cents, for both groups of the Bureau and those of 
Knox show that only about half of the 8 year old children suc- 
ceed, while the records of the public school children indicate that 
as great proficiency is attained at 9 years as at higher years. It 
is therefore believed that construction test A properly belongs in 
the 9 year level. 

As the important point of observation in construction test A 
is the method of work, no time limit was set but inasmuch as the 
unsuccessful subjects usually gave up and the successful ones 
succeeded before the end of five minutes, the time limit of five 
minutes used by Healy and Knox is a fair one. 

In Table 9 the average time in seconds is given for those suc- 
cessful. 



30 



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27 

characteristics are not sharply defined in their reactions, four 
distinct types are dealt with : 

1. Quick, alert individuals who foresee situations and who 
possess such good coordination that there is no fumbling. 

2. Deliberate, slow-motioned ones who make a general sur- 
vey of the problem and who are accurate in selection and 
placing. 

3. Quick-motioned, nervous, inattentive ones who pick up 
blocks at random and place them without forthought. 

4. Clumsy, inaccurate, heavy ones who are lacking in fore- 
thought and ability to learn by experience. They attempt re- 
peatedly to force blocks into obviously impossible spaces, sub- 
stituting muscle for mind. 

Method of Scoring. — Success or failure, the time and the num- 
ber of moves are recorded and note is made of the method of 
work. Healy (5) recommends scoring under the four headings: 

1. Time. 

2. Number of moves. 

3. Number of moves of obvious impossibilities. 

4. Repetition of such obvious impossibilities. 

Tabulation. — This test was used at Newark, Rome, Hudson, 
St. Vincent's and the public school. As it was not used at Troy 
or Albany the number of normal children is smaller than with the 
other tests. Healy (3 ? p. 107) says that no normal person over 8 
or 9 years of age should fail to do this in 5 minutes. Knox 
(6) places the test in the level for 8 year old children. Table 7 
gives the results of the work of the Bureau at the different in- 
stitutions while Table 8 gives the results of the test with the 
public school children. 



28 



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31 



The time ranges from 7" to 5' 20" with the averages as given 
in Table 9. It is believed that the 7" records are usually due to a 
fortunate beginning and that time taken in studying the problem 
should be considered in favor of the individual. Table 8, which 
shows the average time of the public school children, is the most 
reliable guide. 

10. Average Time, Average Deviation" and Standard Devi- 
ation of Public School Children 



age 



7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



Average 


Average 


time 


deviation 


Seconds 


Seconds 


126.8 


63.04 


133.5 


78.37 


95.9 


69.69 


75.5 


57.76 


48.5 


34.32 


41.8 


27.31 



Standard 
deviation 



Seconds 
76.23 
90.16 
79.12 
68.28 
45.87 
41.03 



The average and standard deviations of the successful school 
children in Table 10, show that the younger children who are 
slower also present a greater deviation in the amount of time, 
while the figures for 7 and 8 year old children indicate that more 
of the latter than of the former, possess the persistence to work at 
a problem until its completion, which is also shown by the average 
number of moves, included in Table 8. 

The average number of moves of the institutional cases is 
given in Table 11 which demonstrates a tendency to decrease with 
advancing mental ability. 

Value of the Test. — This test was planned to bring out the 
individual's method of work with a new problem and his ability 
to profit by the experience of repeated trials. If it is suspected 
that success is due to a fortunate beginning, the blocks may be 
turned out quickly and a second trial given. 

Among the good points of the test are : the interest it awakens 
in many of the subjects, the simplicity of the apparatus, its port- 
ability, its independence of the language factor and of formal 
training. In addition to showing the method of work of a sub- 
ject, it has been used with some success as a learning test and 
portrays such individual characteristics as perseverance, recog- 
nition of impossibilities and systematic procedure. 



32 



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33 



3. CONSTRUCTION TEST B 

Description of Test and Material. — Construction test B is one 
designed by Dr. Grace Fernald and used by Healy (5) and also 
by Knox (6) who refers to it as the "Fernald board." The 
apparatus is a wooden frame with spaces into which fit eleven 
pieces of different sizes, which are interchangeable. Success 
does not depend upon previous moves to the extent that it does 
in construction test A. 

Method of Presentation. — The test is given to the subject 
as a game. He is told that the pieces, which are scattered on the 
table, will all go in and exactly fill up the spaces, and that the time 
is being kept but there is no need of hurrying. It has been 
found that if the subject tries to hurry and the pieces do not 
fit at the first attempt he is apt to become nervous and not finish 
as quickly or as well as if he feels that he has plenty of time. 
A failure is recorded if more than five minutes are consumed in 
aimless moves. 

Typical Reactions. — This test is one of the more difficult 
ones and a number of trial moves may be expected; when these 
do not occur it is the result either of good planning or of a lucky 
start. Time spent in the consideration of the problem and in the 
trial of reasonable combinations is not indicative of lack of 
natural ability. Various significant reactions occur; the most 
logical method of procedure is the elimination of the smaller 
spaces first. The aimless working of the defective mind is shown 
by the subject who takes out a circle after it has been correctly 
placed and replaces it by another, or removes a piece, then re- 
places it in the same position, only the other side up. The one 
who gathers up several pieces in his hand and tries the remaining 
without regard to space shows lack of reasoning. A common 
error is to finish with one circle left out and two half-circular 
spaces unfilled. The largest space presents the greatest diffi- 
culty and with that correctly filled success is usually assured. 

Method of Scoring. — The results that may be reduced to 
absolute terms are the time and the number of moves ; the fewest 
possible number of moves is 11. Healy recommends scoring 
under the same headings as given for construction test A. In 
addition notes are made upon the method of procedure and upon 
anything significant that may occur. 



34 



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35 

Tabulation. — Table 12 shows the number tested, the number 
successful and the per cent, successful, classified according to 
mental ages and to institutional groups. The table shows a 
steady rise in the per cent, successful from approximately 20% 
for the mental age of VII to 84% for the mental age of XII. 
The small groups and the uncertain classification render the re- 
sults for the mental ages of XII+ and XV of less value. This 
table indicates that construction test B may be regarded as a 
measure of XI year mentality as 77% of those of XI year men- 
tality succeeded and this is borne out by the fact that of 18 11 
year old children whose mentality is also that of XI years, 15 
or 83% were successful, and of 30 public school children aged 
11, 26 or 86% were successful. 

In Table 13 is shown the per cent, of success of the normal 
public school children from the ages of 7 through 12, which is 
higher than that for the large group of any corresponding mental 
age. 

13. Table Showing Number of Normal Public School 
Children Tested, the Number Successful, Per Cent. 
Successful, Average Time and Average Number of 
Moves 



age 


Number 
tested 


Number 
successful 


Per cent. 

successful 


Average 
time 


Average 
number 
of moves 


7 


30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 


11 
15 
24 
21 
26 
26 


36.6 
50.0 
80.0 
70.0 
86.6 
86.6 


Seconds 
199.30 
137.00 
119.70 
106.30 
104 . 96 
80.50 


29 45 


8 


21 70 


9 


23 70 


10 


24 80 


11 


22 20 


12 


20 00 







Table 14 gives the comparison of the institutional groups clas- 
sified according to mental ages, with the school children classified 
according to physical ages. The advantage seems to be with the 
school children, but it is quite possible that if their mental age 
were known it would be found to be one year or more in advance 
of their physical age, in which case the per cent, of school chil- 
dren successful would correspond quite closely with the per cent, 
successful in the institutional group. 



36 



14. Comparison of Per Cent. Successful of Institutional, 
Group and School Children 



Institutional Group 




School Children 




Mental age 


Per 

cent, 
successful 


Physical age 


Per 

cent, 
successful 


VI 


8.08 
19.60 
33.90 
46.30 
66.60 
77.70 
84.00 
83.30 
100.00 






VII.... 




7 


36.6 


VIII 


8 


50.0 


IX 


9 

10 


80.0 


X 


70.0 


XI 


11 


86.6 


XII 


12 


86.6 


XII + 




XV 













Passing from the per cent, successful to the average time of 
those completing the test it is found that there is no regular re- 
lation between the amount of time and an increasing mental age, 
which is accounted for on the ground that more perseverance 
accompanies higher mental ability, so that the older children 
keep at the problem longer and score a higher proportion of 
successes. The lack of correlation between mental age and time 
is shown by the study of all the institutional children of the actual 
age of 11 who succeeded with the test, 39 in number. The best 
and the worst time records are made each by an 11 year old child 
with a IX year mentality. Table 15 shows the average time for 
the different mental ages classified according to institutions and 
the totals for the whole group. Whenever the number of subjects 
disagrees with the number successful in Table 12, it is due to the 
fact that in a few cases the time or the number of moves was 
not recorded. 



37 



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38 



The average deviations worked out for the whole group on the 
basis of the averages in Table 15 are given in Table 16. 

16. Table Showing the Number of Subjects, Average 
Time and Average Deviation for Each Mental Age 



MENTAL AGE 


Number of 
subjects 


Average 
time 


Average 
deviations 


VII 


22 

54 

108 

112 

117 

48 

39 

13 


152.4 
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100.5 
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113.2 
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X 


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65.63 


XII + 


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XV 


30.24 







The average number of moves for each mental age is given in 
Table 17, while the average deviations for the whole group based 
upon the averages in Table 17, are given in Table 18. 



39 






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40 



18. Table Showing Number of Subjects, Average Number 
of Moves and Average Deviations for Each Mental 
Age 



mental age 


Number of 
subjects 


Average 

number of 

moves 


Average 
deviations 


VII 


20 
48 
99 
101 
111 
45 
34 
13 


18.5 

19.5 

17.6 

17.1 

16.5 

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16 

14.3 


5 4 


VIII 


7 8 


IX 


4 9 


X 


5 3 


XI 


4 8 


XII 


5.8 


XII + 


4 


XV 


1.4 







The number of moves varies little for the different mental 
levels. 



19. Comparison of Average Time and Average Number of 
Moves of Institutional Group With That of Public 
School Children 



Institutional Group 


| 


Public School Children 


mental age 


Average 
time 


Average 
number 
of moves 


PHYSICAL AGE 


Average 
time 


Average 
number 
of moves 


VII 


Seconds 
152 .4 
137.1 
121.1 
118.4 
100.5 
108.7 
113.2 
64.2 


18.5 ; 
19.5 ' 
17.6 
17.1 i 
16.5 ! 
17.7 | 
16 
14.3 | 


7 


Seconds 
199.3 
137 
119.7 
- 106.3 
104.96 
80.5 


29 


VIII 


8 


21.7 


IX 


9 


23.7 


X 


10 


24.8 


XI 


11 


22.2 


XII 


12 


20 


XII + 






XV 









Although the public school children took about as much time 
with the test as the institutional cases and averaged more moves, 
a higher per cent, of them were successful. This indicates that 
they had the perseverance to keep at it until they accomplished 
it, even if not immediately successful. 

At the mental age of VII a child stands 1 chance in 4 of 
succeeding with construction test B ; at VIII, 1 chance in 3 ; at 
IX, 1 chance in 2 ; at X, 2 chances in 3 ; at XI, 3 chances in 4 ; 



41 

at XII, XII + and XV, 4 chances in 5. The number of moves 
varies little with the different mental ages. 
A study of the tables shows that — 

1. The test belongs at the XI year level, as stated above. 

2. There is no guide to the number of moves that may be ex- 
pected. 

3. Both time and number of moves are of less importance than 
the method of work and the clinical picture that may be ob- 
tained. 

Healy (3, p. 107) says: "It should be done in 10' by 
all normal persons from 12 years on. Most of our normal 12 
year old offenders do it in from l' to 3', but even when 
older persons exceed such time limits it can hardly be maintained 
as evidence of low abilitv. Affain in this it is the method that it 
is most valuable to note — particularly the attitude of planning, 
as put over against taking the chances on trial and error, and 
particularly as against the repetition of impossibilities. This, 
namely, the ability to profit by experience, is registered with 
certainty in the number of moves made. Errors to the extent 
of 10 or 15 indicate little, but beyond that there is carelessness 
or actual inability to think out a situation. There are 11 pieces 
to be put in — thus normally the task should be done in at least 
26 moves. Occasionally the slapdash method done by a bright 
person involves more moves, but only seldom. It should be re- 
membered that a planful method may be very slow." 

Value of the Test. — The purpose of the test is to show the 
individual's perception of form, and his method of procedure 
with a piece of work which requires some planning and foresight, 
and its use indicates that it does illuminate these traits. Deter- 
mination, ability to learn by errors, power of concentration, re- 
luctance to admit failure are shown. It is fair to add that there 
are persons who have no aptitude for anything which partakes 
of the nature of a game or puzzle, and for these the test may 
present undue difficulties. Still, it is not more difficult than the 
new situations that the normal person is often called upon to 
meet, for instance the packing of a suitcase. What has been said 
in regard to the good points of construction test A is also true 
of this one, while the greater difficulty of test B makes it valu- 
able for older persons. 



42 



4. THE DBIKKING CUP 

Description of Test and Material. — So far as is known the 
device of folding a drinking cup from directions as a mental test 
is described here for the first time. The apparatus consists of 
two squares of unruled paper, one each for the examiner and the 
subject; typewriter paper cut into 8% inch squares is convenient. 
The problem for the subject is to make a drinking cup after the 
examiner has demonstrated and explained each step. 

Method of Presentation. — The directions are given in the fol- 
lowing form : "I will show you how to make a drinking cup, 
and when I have finished you may make one. First I fold this 
square piece of paper three-cornered ways through the center 
(move 1). Then I take this corner (the right hand acute angle) 
and fold it over to the opposite side (move 2) so that these two 
edges are equal (pointing to the arms of the isosceles triangle 
left in the vertex). Next I take the other corner (left acute 
angle) and fold it over in the same way so that the edges come 
straight across (move 3). Then I fold this flap down (folding 
down the upper flap) and put it into this outer space to hold it 
(move 4). Then I fold down the other flap (move 5). You 
see how it looks. Now take this square and make one like it." 
The finished cup is left in full view, but the subject is not 
allowed to handle it. 

Typical Reactions. — In most cases if the subject succeeds 
with the second move he can finish without difficulty, as from 
that point the steps logically follow each other. It is not unusual 
for one, after making the first move correctly, in the second to 
fold the corner straight back along the line of the first fold 
instead of to the opposite side, which leads to an incorrect third 
move. He may be able to detect his mistake by looking at the 
sample on the table, otherwise he makes various trial moves or 
gives up. Under-estimation of the difficulty of the test, with a 
resulting lack of attention accounts for some of the failures. 
The work is done with varying degrees of neatness. 

Method of Scoring. — The scoring is on the basis of success, 
which is recorded if the finished product holds together. The 






Fig. 4. Drinking Cup 



43 

time and number of moves are recorded; the accurate following 
of directions involves 5 moves, hence every move above 5 is the 
record of a blunder. Note is made of the method of work which 
is considered in forming a judgment of the individual. 

Tabulation. — There should be some point in the mental develop- 
ment of a child where he gains the ability to follow five simple, 
demonstrated directions, such as these, and at this point the test 
would indicate mental status. The totals in table 20 show that 
at the mental age of X 70 per cent, of the subjects succeeded. 

Two factors affect the results from the two custodial asylums ; 
(1) they were the institutions where the test was developed and 
the method of presentation had not become uniform, (2) all sub- 
jects in these two institutions, and also at Hudson with a mental 
age of less than XI, are feeble-minded. The children of Troy, 
Albany and St. Vincent's, since the majority of them are normal, 
form a homogeneous group and, as shown in Table 21, present 
more uniform results. The totals show that, while practically 
none succeeded in the mental age VI, 36 per cent, succeeded in 
VII, with a steady rise to X, where 79 per cent, were successful, 
and above X practically 90 per cent. 



44 



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46 



The above results are comparable with the performances of 
public school children of corresponding physical ages. 

22. Table Showing the Number of Public School 
Children Tested at Each Physical Age, the Number 
Successful and the Per Cent. Successful 



age 


Number 
tested* 


Number 
successful 


Per cent, 
successful 


7 


30 
29 
28 
29 
27 
25 


9 
15 

19 
22 
24 
21 


30 


8 


51 7 


'9 


67 8 


10 


75 8 


11 


88 


12 


84 







* Twelve of the 180 children tested already knew how to fold the drinking cup. 

23. Table Showing Per Cent. Successful of Orphan 
Asylum Children Classified According to Mental Age 
as Compared With Public School Children Classified 
According to Chronological Age 



Orphan Asylum Children 


Public School Children 


Mental age 


Per cent, 
successful 


Chronological age 


Per cent 

successful. 


VI 


3.8 
36.3 
52.5 
66.6 
79.2 
89.2 
89.6 
88.2 
100 


7 




VII 


30 


VIII 


8 


51.7 


IX 


9 


67.8 


X 


10 


75.8 


XI 


11 


88.8 


XII 


12 


84 


XII + 






XV 









These results involving 619 children place the drinking cup 
test at the X year level. In order further to judge whether nor- 
mal 10 year old children may be expected to follow successfully 
the five directions involved in making the drinking cup, the 
records of all the 10 year old children grading at age mentally 
were examined; of 16 such children found, 15 were successful; 
while of the 21 children 10 years old who were one year retarded 
mentally, only 11 succeeded; and of 8 children 10 years old one 
year advanced mentally all succeeded. ^ 



47 



Two factors enter into the amount of time taken to fold the 
drinking cup, either hesitation and confusion, or care to produce 
a good finished product. The average time for the public school 
children given in Table 24 shows that the test may be done by 
10 year old children in about 1 minute, but that the little hands 
of the younger children work more slowly. 

24. Table Showing the Average Time Required by 
Normal Public School Children to Fold the Drinking 
Cup 



age 


Number 
tested 


Number 
successful 


Average 
time 


7 


30 
29 
28 
29 

27 
25 


9 
15 
19 
22 

24 
21 


Seconds 
74 


8 


82.8 


9 


64 


10 


58 9 


11 


64.5 


12 


51.7 




m 



Table 25 gives the average time for the successful subjects from 
Troy, Albany, Hudson and St. Vincent's (records of time and 
number of moves were not begun until after the work at Rome and 
Newark was closed). 

25. Table Showing the Average Time Required by Insti- 
tutional Children to fold the Drinking Cup 



mental age 


Number 

of 
subjects* 


Average 
time 


VII 


28 

46 

104 

108 

110 

42 

44 

12 


Seconds 
67 


VIII 


62 23 


IX 


63 42 


X 


62 23 


XI 


59 66 


XII 


47 28 


XII + 


50 84 


XV 


42.91 





♦All available records for each table are used, although in a few cases either the time or the 
number of moves was not recorded. These are all included in Tables 20, 21, and 23, but are 
necessarily omitted from Tables 25, 26, and 27, hence the difference in the totals. 

While these tables serve as a guide to judge the individual 
performance, the reason for delay is regarded as of more impor- 
tance than the actual variation in time. 



48 



Table 20 shows that of 496 subjects who succeeded and for 
whom there were data, 67 per cent, finished in 5 or the least 
possible number of moves, or in other words followed directions 
exactly, while 33 per cent, succeeded after one or more false 
moves. 

26. Table Showing the Number and Per Cent, of Subjects 
Who Completed the Drinking Cup in 5, 6, 7, 8 or More 
Moves 



number of moves 


Number 

of 
subjects 


Per cent, 
of 

subjects 




330 
70 
52 
23 
21 


G7 


G 


14 


7 


10 


8 


5 


More than 8 


4 










496 


100 



The results given by mental ages in Table 27 show that from 
the mental age of VIII through XII there is no constant change 
in the proportion of subjects finishing in five moves. 

27. Table Showing Number of Moves in Making the 
Drinking Cup as Compared With the Mental Ages of 
the Subjects 



mental age 


Number 

of 
subjects 




Number of Moves 






5 


6 


7 


8 


More 
than 8 


VI 


1 

28 

45 

103 

110 

110 

44 

43 

12 


1 
20 
38 
61 
68 
67 
35 
31 

9 


7 

3 

17 

12 

21 

4 

4 

2 


1 

o 
«J 

17 

11 

14 

2 

3 

1 


1 

5 
7 
3 
3 
4 




VII 




VIII 




IX 


3 


X 


12 


XI 


5 


XII 




XII + 


1 


XV 










496 


330 


70 


52 


23 


21 



With public school children the average number of moves at 
age 7 was 5.2; at age 8, 5.8; at age 9, 6.1; and age 10, 5.6; at 
age 11, 6.6 ; and at age 12, 6.1, As the drinking cup is intended 



49 

primarily as a test of ability to follow five directions, the com- 
pletion of the cup in more than five moves must be regarded as 
less satisfactory than when it is done in Hive moves; on the other 
hand ability to correct and detect errors is not to be disregarded. 
Value of the Test. — The test is considered valuable because 
it furnishes a simple device for testing the ability to grasp and 
follow instructions. The instructions are given both graphically 
and verbally as might occur under ordinary conditions of life. 
Failure may result from (1) lack of attention either from poor 
concentration or over-confidence; (2) lack of memory to retain 
the iive directions; (3) lack of ability to detect obvious errors; 
(4) lack of ability to correct moves recognized as wrong. It 
also indicates the habitual method of work, whether neat or 
careless. As this is the drinking cup of the Boy Scouts it is 
well to inquire if the subject already knows how. The following 
are some of the good points of the test: (1) it requires no ap- 
paratus other than two squares of paper and never fails to in- 
terest the subject; (2) self -consciousness does not enter largely 
into the result; (3) formal education does not aid in the com- 
pletion of the test; (4) it requires no elaborate use of language 
and hence can be used with deaf-mutes and foreign-speaking 
people. 



50 



5. MOTOR CO-ORDINATION 

Description of Test and Material. — The blank for this test is 
one used by Healy (5) but suggested by Whipple. As shown by 
Figure 5, heavy black lines divide a white sheet into 150 half-inch 
squares. The tapering end of a pen holder is used for tapping. 

Method of Presentation. — The subject, in a comfortable posi- 
tion at a table, is told to tap as many squares as possible in the 
time allowed without missing one or hitting a line. He starts at 
a given signal and stops sharply at the end of 30". The test is 
then given a second time for comparison. 

Typical Reactions. — Since it is not difficult for the normal 
child to strike within the limits of the squares, inability to do so 
indicates a lack of ordinary muscular control. Missing a square, 
hitting one twice or hitting a line, each counted an error, give 
evidence of such lack, which is also shown by those who strike 
harder and harder in their efforts to keep within the spaces. 
Healy' s instruction to reverse direction at the end of each line 
to save time was not given with these cases; therefore when one 
did so of his own accord it was considered a merit. 

Method of Scoring. — The number of squares and the errors, 
which are counted as the test is in progress, are recorded. For 
statistical work it is desirable to reduce the score to a single term 
and satisfactory results are obtained by substracting two from the 
total number of squares for each error. 

Tabulation. — Computed on this basis the average number of 
squares for each mental age is given in Table 28. The problem is 
to determine the reasonable expectation for each age and the 
point at which the maximum of efficiency is reached. 







































































1 






































































































































1 



































































































Fig. 5. Motor Co-ordination 



51 



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52 

The superiority of the Hudson cases at each mental level sug- 
gests that a high score may depend upon some factor other than 
mental development. Table 29 in which the same records are reas- 
sembled under the classification of physical age shows a gradual 
rise from 5 to 17 years. This rise and the close similarity of the 
results for each group show this classification to be the consist- 
ent one. The increasing divergence between the mental and 
physical ages, shown in Table 30, as the years advance is because 
a larger proportion of the older than the younger children have 
fallen back into the lower mental age groups. 






53 



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55 



30. Comparison of the Averages for the Mental and 

Physical Ages 



mental age 


Average 

number of 

squares 


PHYSICAL 
AGE 


Average 

number of 

squares 


PHYSICAL 
AGE 


Average 

number of 

squares 


V 


34.2 

41.4 

45.9 

53.7 

62.9 

71.4 

74.9 

80 

76.5 

89.9 


5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 


41 

40.8 

43.9 

50.8 

56.9 

59.6 

65.1 

66.1 

68 

72.2 

74.7 


16 
17 
18 
19 

20 


77.8 


VI 


84 


VII 

VIII 


83 
84.1 


IX 


87.2 


X 




XI 






XII 






XII + 






XV 



















Table 31 of the distribution of errors shows that half of the 
subjects completed the test without errors, while 78 per cent, made 
less than 3 errors. 



31. Distribution of Errors for Each Physical Age 



NUMBER OF ERRORS 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 

or 
more 


Total 


Physical age: 

5 


1 
8 
14 
17 
29 
28 
38 
37 
39 
31 
23 
17 
17 
16 
10 
11 

336 


'V 
5 

7 
7 
7 
9 
10 
12 
9 
5 
8 
9 
5 
3 
2 


2 
2 
5 
7 
4 

10 
5 
7 
9 
4 

13 
5 
3 
3 
1 
2 
















3 


6 


1 

'4' 
4 

7 
4 
6 
9 
8 
5 
5 
6 
2 
3 


6 
2 
1 
2 
3 
3 
3 
1 
4 
4 
4 
4 





1 


3 








1 


27 
29 


7 


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1 
1 


1 




8 


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1 
4 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
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1 


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39 


9 






3 
1 


52 


10 






61 
61 
66 
73 

58 


11 




1 




12 


1 








13 


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1 




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14 


15 


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53 
40 
42 


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1 








17 










18 










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19 








1 


21 
15 


20 






















6 












103 


82 


64 


40 


17 


10 


3 


1 


6 


668 



Healy says (3, p. HO) : "Above 12 years old we expect from 
individuals of ordinary ability at least 60 squares tapped in 30" 
with not more than 3 or 4 errors." The tables indicate that a 
fair standard would be 80 squares, with not more than two errors, 
for a 17 year old person. 

Value of the Test. — This is more obviously a physical test than 



56 

the others in the series, and as such it is interesting to note, de- 
pends upon physical age more directly than upon mental develop- 
ment. A coarse estimation of muscular control may be made 
from the form-board, but it is too easy for children over 9 years, 
while this test may be used with profit for adults as well as 
children. The result of the simplicity of the apparatus is that 
few functions other than the one tested are involved. Although 
this is probably the least interesting of the tests, there is little 
indication that subjects fall short of their best through indifference. 









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01 



6. CANCELLATION 

Description of Test and Material. — This test in various forms 
lias been used by many psychologists as a measure of attention. 
The essential principle is the crossing out of one or more of the 
designated symbols on a printed sheet. The form used in this 
series (Figure 6) is a sheet of paper 11" by Sy 2 r/ , on which is 
printed a block of different numerals and letters properly spaced, 
arranged in twenty lines with fifty characters in a line. Each 
numeral appears five times in a line except when its place is 
taken by one of the letters, which are introduced to form oases 
for the eye as it travels over the line. A well-sharpened pencil 
and a stop watch for timing the operation are the only tools 
necessary. The form as printed was found to be too long for young 
children, hence the sheets were cut in half, the division falling 
as indicated by the heavy line on the blank, and the tables are 
based on the time for the half sheet. 

Method of Presentation. — The subject after being asked to 
point out one is told to cross out as quickly as possible all the 7s. 
No suggestions as to the method are made. It is essential that 
there be good light and the subject should rest his forearm com- 
fortably on the table. Great variation in the results occurs when 
the directions are modified. Probably the best form of instruc- 
tion is : " See how quickly you can put a mark through every 
seven on the sheet," which induces a better time reaction than: 
" See how long it will take you to put a mark through every seven 
on the sheet." 

Typical Reactions. — The reactions fall into the headings, slow 
and accurate, rapid and accurate, slow and inaccurate, rapid and 
inaccurate. The school children almost uniformly did the work 
systematically, a few by vertical lines, and a few checked alter- 
nate lines backward. Unsystematic work and the missing of 
symbols were encountered most frequently in the mentally de- 
fective. It has been observed that nervous subjects who show 
marked instability, are able, nevertheless, in many cases to give 
the intense attention for the short time necessary to finish the 
test, 



58 



Method of Scoring. — The time and the number of errors are 
recorded but the time is the important element, since by the 
instructions the time record is the one emphasized. 

Tabulation. — When the test was used with the public school 
children the instructions were given as suggested by Fernald (1) 
with the attention focused upon accuracy rather than speed. The 
results are given in Table 32; in comparison with the other 
groups the time is decidedly slower. 

32. Average Time, Average Deviation and Standard 
Deviation of Public School Children 



PHYSICAL AGE 


Average 
time 


Average 
deviation 


Standard 
deviation 


7 


231.2 
217.6 
143.4 
141 
117.9 
96.2 


63.30 
55.25 
32.60 
27.33 
23.22 
18.83 


81 23 


8 


75 19 


9 


49 83 


10 


32 82 


11 


28 03 


12 


23 09 







In Troy also where accuracy was emphasized the children were 
slower than the Albany children who were instructed to do it as 
fast as possible. 

The Hudson girls in general have a better record than any of 
the others, due perhaps to the fact that they are older. Wood- 
worth and Wells (14) noted that in their cases the women aver- 
aged faster than the men. 



59 



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60 



Forty-six additional records became available after the time the 
final computations were begun, and these are included in Table 
34 (only) from which it appears that from the age of 6 children 
can do the test, but not until the age of 10 or 11 is their 
speed sufficient to indicate the skill and close attention which the 
test is intended to gauge. A child of 11 should do the test in 
two minutes, with not more than one error, and at the age of 13 
the time should be lowered to one and one-half minutes. Capable 
adults average about one minute for time reaction. 

34. Average Time of 693 Subjects Grouped (1) According 
to Physical Age, (2) According to Mental Age 



PHYSICAL AGE 


Average 
time 


MENTAL AGE 


Average 
time 


5 


135 

217 

230 

188 

164 

137 

120 

107 

99 

99 

103 

106 

84 

93 

82 

88 






6 


V 


253 


7 


VI 


245 


8 


VII 


196 


9 


VIII 


167 


10 


IX 


128 


11 






12 


X 


106 


13 


XI \ 


99 


14 


XII 


89 


15 


XII + 


87 


16 


XV 


91 


17 






18 






19 . . . 






20 













Table 34 gives the average time for 693 subjects grouped first 
according to their physical and then according to their mental 
ages. The correspondence in time at the different age levels is 
not between 6 and VI, 7 and VII, but between 7 and VI, 8 and 
VII, 9 and VIII, and 10 and IX. From this the conclusion is 
drawn that the factor of physical development plays a coordinate 
part with that of mental development. The averages for the men- 
tal age groups are brought up by the retarded children and the re- 
tardation is relatively greater at the higher ages. Thus there is 
a drop of two years between the corresponding averages of the 
later years, 12 matching X and 13, XL 

The question of errors is next in importance. Table 35 shows 
the distribution of errors according to the mental ages and Table 
36 gives the same worked out on a basis of per cents. 



61 



35. Table Showing the Distribution of Errors of Subjects 
Grouped According to Mental Age 



errors 


Mental Age 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


IX 


X 


XI 


XII 


XII + 


XV 


Total 





1 


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17 
8 
6 
3 
3 
2 
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2 


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28 
19 
6 
4 
5 
5 

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"i 

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72 

25 

11 

9 

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4 
3 

i 

' 3 


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i 


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1 
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i 


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1 


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8 




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11 




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1 


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15 or more 


8 




4 


19 


Total 


4 


13 


52 


74 


144 


132 


124 


49 


44 


11 


647 



36. Per Cent. Distribution of Errors of Subjects Grouped 
According to Mental Age 



errors 


Mental Age 




V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


IX 


X 


XI 


XII 


XII + 


XV 


Total 





25 


7.7 


21.2 
11.5 
11.5 

7.7 
5.8 
9.6 

7.7 
5.8 

3.8 
3.8 
1.9 
1.9 


37.8 

23 

10.8 
8.1 
4 
4 

2.7 
2.7 
1.4 


47.2 
19.4 
13.2 
4.2 
2.8 
3.5 
3.5 


54.5 

18.9 

8.3 

6.8 

3 
3 

2.3 


39.7 
23.4 
5.6 
2.4 
.9 
1.7 
2.4 


55.1 
24.5 

6.1 

8.2 

2 

4.1 


56.8 
22.7 
11.4 


63.3 

18.2 


48.4 

19.8 

9.4 

5 2 


1 


2 




3 


25 


7.7 
7.7 


4 






2 


5 






9.1 


3.4 
3.2 

14 
5 


6 




23.1 


7 






2.3 




8 




7.7 
15.4 


.9 




9 


25 












g 


10 






.7 








9.1 


5 


11 




7.7 
7.7 


1.4 


.7 








6 
5 


12 














13 






.7 












2 

1 2 


14 




















15 or more 


25 


15.4 


5.8 
1.9 


1.4 
2.7 


.7 
4.2 












Unknown 


2.3 


3.2 




6.8 




3 






























100 

























These show that there is increasing accuracy as the intelligence 
increases up to eleven years where the maximum of exactness is 
attained. At eleven years approximately 80 per cent, may be 
expected to make not more than one error. 



62 



The school children for whom the accuracy was emphasized did 
not work any more accurately than did the other groups as shown 
by Table 37. 



37. Comparison of the Per Cent, of Institutional Cases 
and of Public School Children Making Prom to 1 
Error 



Institutional Group 




School Children 


Mental age 


Per cent. 


Physical 
age 


Per cent. 


V 


25 

7.7 
32.7 
60.8 
66.6 
73.4 
83.1 
79.6 
79.5 
63.6 






VI... 






VII 


7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 


20 


VIII 


56.7 


IX 


70 


X 


93.3 


XI 


76.7 


XII 


70 


XII + 




XV 













Value of the Test. — The test measures the speed and uniform- 
ity of reaction to a definite, simple, visual stimulus. Tho proc- 
esses involved are less complex than many of the other tests in 
this series and on that account give a more definite result than 
they. As it can be demonstrated without elaborate use of language 
it may be used with aliens or with deaf-mutes. Manifestly it is 
not a fair nor a desirable test for a subject with poor vision, but for 
ordinary subjects it is a useful test for attention and speed of 
reaction. 




Fig. 7-a. Recognition Memory 



63 



7. RECOGNITION MEMORY 

Description of Test and Material. — This test is similar to one 
used by Fernald (1). It consists of two similar sets of ten post- 
cards in black and white. The sets used (Figure 7-A and 7-B) 
include two angora cats, looking in different directions ; two dogs, 
one a bull dog and the other a terrier; two similar water scenes, 
etc. In one group the stamp space is underlined for identification. 

Method of Presentation. — The subject is told to look closely at 
each card so that he will remember it when it is mixed with some 
that he has not seen. He is then shown the cards, one by one, with 
sufficient time to inspect each before it is covered by the next. 
When the ten have been shown, they are shuffled with the other 
set and the whole twenty presented in the same way to the subject 
who then designates which cards have previously been seen. 

Typical Reactions. — Two kinds of errors are possible, the 
failure to recognize the cards that were in the first set and hence 
have been seen, and the selection of cards which have not been 
seen. By their reactions to this test subjects fall into four general 
groups : 

1. Those who pay such close and intelligent attention that they 
choose only the cards which they have seen. 

2. Very cautious ones, who are not sure of their impressions 
and reject cards which they have seen. With these a delay in 
their choice increases their doubts. 

3. The inattentive ones unthinkingly choose the second 
picture because it suggests the original. 

4. Low grade subjects who are entirely lacking in discrimina- 
tion and choose all the cards or the ones that strike their fancy. 

Taking the dogs for example, the errors fall into this order of 
seriousness. 

1. Selecting the wrong dog, due to a lack of precise observa- 
tion. 

2. Selecting both dogs, due both to lack of precise observa- 
tion and forgetfulness of the selection already made. 

3. Selecting neither dog, due to a dense lack of observation, to 
forgetfulness, or to a wandering of attention. 



64 



Method of Scoring. — In view of the two separate kinds of 
errors the method of scoring adopted in this series was to record 
the number of cards chosen, and the number of those chosen 
that were correct, then to reduce this record to the number of 
errors. To do this the number of correct choices is subtracted 
from ten as there are ten correct choices to be made. Then the 
number of correct choices is subtracted from the number made 
which gives the number of incorrect selections. Obviously the 
sum of these errors gives the total errors. The same result is 
obtained if the incorrect cards in each pile are counted, but if 
the number of errors alone is recorded the significance of the 
results is less evident. For example, a subject might choose 
seven cards, all of which were correct. The record shows that 
he belongs to the cautious type mentioned above. Another might 
choose eleven cards of which nine were correct. In that case two 
cards were chosen which had not previously been seen and one 
overlooked which had been seen. The number of errors in each 
case is the same, but the performance differs. 

Tabulation. — In Table 38 are given the average number of 
errors, and the average and standard deviations of the institu- 
tional subjects, grouped according to mental ages. 

38. Table Showing the Number Tested, Average Number 
of Errors, Average Deviation and Standard Deviation 
at Each Mental Age 



mental age 


Number 

of 
subjects 


Average 
number 
of errors 


Average 
deviation 


Standard 
deviation 


V 


16 

35 

89 

151 

221 

166 

147 

59 

52 

12 


7.6 
6.1 
5.5 
4.9 
4.5 
3.7 
3.3 
3.3 
2.5 
3.2 


1.4 
1.8 
2.6 
2.1 
2.2 
1.8 
1.8 
1.6 
1.6 
2.1 


2.25 


VI 


2.34 


VII 


3.17 


VIII 


2.43 


IX 


2.68 


X 


2.17 


XI 


2.31 


XII 


1.79 


XII + 


2.04 


XV 


2.6 







The results for the school children are given with the devia- 
tions in Table 39. 




Fig 7-b. Recognition Memory 



65 



39. Table Showing the Number of School Children 
Tested, Average Number of Errors, Average Deviation 
and Standard Deviation at Each Physical Age 



physical age 



7. 
8. 
9. 
10 

11. 

12. 



Number 
tested 



30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 



Average 
number 
of errors 



3.8 

3.06 

2.43 

2.83 

2.26 

1.9 



Average 
deviation 



Standard 
deviation 



2.44 

1.6 

1.08 

1.62 

1.45 

1.4 



2.99 
1.98 
1.36 
1.97 
1.87 
1.83 



Erom these tables it appears that this test in its present form 
is too difficult for the XII year mentality to perform without 
two or three errors, or on the basis of the deviations, from to 4 
errors. 

The distribution of errors is shown in Table 40. 



40. Number of Subjects at Each Mental Age Who Made 
A Given Number of Errors 



number of 


Mental Age 


Total 


errors 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


IX 


X 


XI 


XII 


XII + 


XV 









1 



1 
1 

4 
5 
1 
3 




1 
4 
4 
6 
6 
5 
3 
3 
3 


2 

6 

4 

16 

10 

10 

11 

5 

' 5 

3 

17 


3 

9 

19 

18 

29 

21 

15 

14 

11 

5 

7 


9 
16 
33 
32 
29 
30 
23 
17 
15 

6 
11 


13 

15 

21 

27 

38 

15 

19 

8 

5 

4 

1 


19 

15 

23 

26 

25 

10 

17 

4 

4 

1 

3 


2 
7 

18 
7 

12 
6 
2 
2 
2 
1 



7 
10 
14 
8 
4 
4 
4 



1 



4 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 




1 


55 


1 


82 


2 


136 


3 


140 


4 


152 


5 


104 


6 


99 


7 


59 


8 


50 


9 


24 


10 or more 


47 


Total 


16 


35 


89 


151 


221 


166 


147 


59 


52 


12 


948 



Table 41 gives the same distribution worked out in percentages 
for comparison. 



66 



41. Distribution of Errors by Mental Ages in Percentages 



NUMBER OF 


Mental Age 


Total 


errors 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


IX 


X 


XI 


XII 


XII + 


XV 




1 

2 

3 


6.25 

6.25 
6.25 

25 

31.2 
6.25 

18.8 


'2^9 

11.4 

11.4 

17.1 

17.1 

14.3 

8.6 

8.6 

8.6 


2.2 
6.7 
4.5 
18 

11.2 

11.2 

12.4 

5.6 

5.6 

3.4 

19.1 


2 

6 

12.6 

11.9 

19.2 

13.9 

9.9 

9.3 

7.3 

3.3 

4.6 


4.1 

7.2 

14.9 

14.5 

13.1 

13.6 

10.4 

7.7 

6.8 

2.7 

5 


7.8 

9 

12.6 
16.3 
22.9 

9 
11.4 

4.8 

3 

2.4 
.6 


12.9 
10.2 
15.6 
17.7 
17 

6.8 
11.6 

2.7 

2.7 
.7 

2 


3.4 

11.9 

30.5 

11.9 

20.3 

10.2 

3.4 

3.4 

3.4 

1.7 


13.5 
19.2 
26.9 
15.4 

7.7 
7.7 
7.7 

i.9 


33.3 

25 
8.3 
8.3 
8.3 
8.3 

'8i3 


5.8 
8.6 

14.3 

14.8 

16 

11 

10.4 
6 2 


4 

5 


6 


7 


8 


5.3 
2 5 


9 


10 or more 


5 


Total 























100% 



Tables 42 and 43 show the distribution of errors of the 
school children. 



42. Distribution of Errors of Public School Children 



NUMBER OF ERRORS 


Physical Age 


Total 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 







4 
4 
3 
5 
7 
3 
4 


2 

4 

13 

4 
5 
1 

1 


2 

7 
7 
4 
5 

3 

2 


7 
3 
8 
7 
1 
1 
2 
1 


4 
10 
7 
6 
1 
1 
1 


19 


1 


9 
5 
3 
2 

4 
2 


37 


2 


43 


3 


29 


4 


21 


5 


10 


6 


13 


7 


3 


8 


3 
1 
1 


3 


9 


1 


10 or more 


1 






Total 


30 


30 


30 


30 


30 


30 


18J 







67 



43. Distribution - of Errors of Public School Children 

in Percentages 



number of errors 


Physical Age 


Total 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 







13.3 

13.3 

10 

16.7 

23.3 

10 

13.3 


6.7 
13.3 
43.3 
13.3 
16.7 
3.3 
3.3 


6.7 
23.3 
23.3 
13.3 
16.7 

10 
6.7 


23.3 
10 

26.7 
23.3 
3.3 
3.3 
6.7 
3.3 


13.3 

33.3 

23.3 

20 

3.3 

3.3 

3.3 


10.6 


1 


30 

16.7 
10 

6.7 
13.3 

6.7 


20.6 


2 


23 9 


3 


lti 1 


4 


11 7 


5 


5 6 


6 


7 2 


7. . . 


1 7 


8 


10 
3.3 
3.3 


1 7 


9 


6 


10 or more 


6 






1 Total 














100% 







From these tables it may be noted (1) that the school children 
made a better record than the group of institutional cases, but 
only 10 per cent, of them did it without errors; (2) that 40 per 
cent, of the large group made 5 or more errors; (3) that there is 
a steady rise in proficiency from 7 to 12 years of age for the 
school children and from VII to XII years mentality of the 
large group and that the range of deviation also decreases with 
increasing mental ability. 

Value of the Test — The contrast in the results between the 
careful, thoughtful selections of the school children and the 
haphazard choices of the mental defectives leads to the belief 
that the test is of value for diagnostic work. The cards never 
fail to excite interest both for the normal and defective children 
and even the younger children have no difficulty in grasping 
what is wanted. The ones who make a perfect record usually 
tell of some special detail by which they remembered the 
picture, e. g., the lamp in front of the church, the printed name 
of the dog, etc. Persons with a memory for detail are the most 
successful. However, the test as given is too hard and should 
be modified. 



68 



8. AUSSAGE 

Description of Test and Material. — This test first proposed 
by Binet and advocated by Stern was given along the lines sug- 
gested by Healy and Fernald (5). The picture uniformly em- 
ployed was that of the butcher's shop from the set of Binet- 
Simon pictures used in this country. 

Method of presentation. — The examiner introduces the test 
in this form : " Take a good look at this picture, because when I 
take it away I shall ask you what you saw. I may even ask 
about some things that are not there." The subject is then 
shown the picture which is taken away promptly at the end of 
15" with the question : " What did you see ?" After the ideas 
from the free recital are exhausted the examiner begins to ask 
questions concerning the details of the picture and interspersed 
with these are questions which offer suggestions, as: 

1. Did you see the electric lights? 

2. Did you notice the telephone over in the corner? 

3. What kind of flowers did the little girl have on her hat? 

4. Was the butcher bald-headed? 

5. Did you see the chicken hanging up with the other meat? 
Was it dressed or were the feathers still on ? 

6. Did you notice the doll in the little girl's arms? What 
kind of a dress did it have on? 

7. Did you notice the saw hanging up behind the butcher? 

8. Did you see the oranges in the woman's basket? 

9. Did you see the box for meat scraps under the counter? 

10. Did you see the red ribbon around the dog's neck ? 

11. Did you see the kitten looking around the corner of the 
counter ? Was it a gray kitten or a white one ? 

12. Did you see the bananas hanging up in the ice box? 
Were they green or yellow? 

Typical Reactions. — The type of response which may be dull 
or dramatic runs the entire range from limited enumeration 
through description to comprehensive interpretation, depending^ 
as Binet has pointed out, largely upon the age or the mental 



69 

development of this subject. Some children reflect their school 
training in their full accounts told in careful English. The 
matter of suggestibility depends upon an innate quality. While 
most young children are suggestible a few are martyrs to truth 
in their reluctant admissions that they have not noticed the tele- 
phone and do not know what color are the flowers on the little 
girl's hat. Far more frequently the young child is honestly 
convinced that he did see a red ribbon around the dog's neck 
and that it is tied on one side. Still another type of response is 
from the subject who is trying to give the answer that will 
please the examiner, or thinks that details must be there or the 
examiner would not ask about them. Among the mentally 
deficient one frequently encounters the subject who monotonously 
answers " No " to every question or the one who eagerly accepts 
and enlarges upon each suggestion for example saying that he 
saw the chicken hanging on the wall and it was not ready to 
cook for the feathers were still on, and is even willing to assert 
that he saw an automobile outside the butcher shop. Such a 
subject can be led to absurd lengths in narrating the things he 
saw. 

Method of Scoring. — Responses were checked under the fol- 
lowing headings: 

1. Type of response. Enumeration. Description. Interpre- 
tation. 

2. Details. Number correct from free recital. Number cor- 
rect by questioning. Number erroneous. Number imagined. 

;3. Suggestibility. Not .suggestible. Somewlhat suggestible. 
Very suggestible. 

The scoring for suggestibility is loose. As the memory of the 
picture fades and the subject becomes more and more bewildered 
by the questions that are asked, the probability of accepting sug- 
gestions increases. Hence it depends to a certain extent upon 
the number of suggestions offered and the manner of the ex- 
aminer. The method used has been to record the responses as 
not suggestible when none were accepted and very suggestible 
when a majority of the suggestions or impossible ones were ac- 
cepted, or when suggestions were enlarged upon. As to the 



70 



nature of the response, if partly enumerative and partly descrip- 
tive it was credited as descriptive, if partly descriptive and 
partly interpretative, as interpretative. 

Tabulation. — The type of the free recital has verified the 
proposition of Binet that young children confine themselves to 
enumeration, that older children give description and older still 
interpretation of pictures. 

Table 44 shows the proportion of enumerative accounts de- 
creasing and of interpretative accounts increasing as the mental 
age advances. 

44. Showing in Percentages the Type of Response to the 
Picture for the Mental Ages, Institutional Cases 



MENTAL AGE 


Number of 
subjects 


Per Cent. 




Enumer- 
ative 


Descrip- 
tive 


Inter- 
pretative 


VII 


55 

74 

151 

136 

132 

49 

49 

12 


60 

45.9 
37.7 
30.1 
23.5 
10.2 
8.2 


34.5 

48.6 

43 

43.4 

34.8 

47 

30.6 

50 


5 4 


VIII 


5 4 


IX 


19 2 


X 


26 5 


XI 


41 7 


XII 


42 8 


XII + 


61 2 


XV 


50 







Table 45 shows the number of each type of response for the 
public school children. 

45. Type of Response Given by School Children 



PHYSICAL AGE 


Number 
tested 


Type of Response 


Enumer- 
ative 


Descrip- 
tive 


Inter- 
pretative 


7 


30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 


19 
16 
6 
7 
1 
5 


11 
13 
21 
17 

18 
14 


o 


8 


1 


9 


3 


10 


6 


11 


11 


12 


11 







While there is a decided difference in the value of the details 
that may be given, Table 46 indicates the number that may be 
expected from school children. 



71 



46. Average Number of Details Given by Public School 
Children of Each Physical Age 





PHYSICAL age 


Average 

number of 

details 


7 


8.71 


8 


9.1 


9 


11.43 


10 


11.53 


11 


12.7 


12 


13 33 







In view of the looseness of the scoring, the variations in the 
number of suggestions offered, and the personal equation which 
necessarily enters largely into the results, Table 47 can be re- 
garded only as indicative of the tendency toward suggestibility. 

47. Showing the Per Cent, of Institutional Subjects 
Who Were Not Suggestible, Suggestible, and Very 
Suggestible at Each Mental Age 



mental age 


Number of 
subjects 


Per Cent. 




Not sug- 
gestible 


Suggestible 


Very sug- 
gestible 


VII 


55 

74 

151 

136 

132 

49 

49 

12 


3.6 
16.2 
18.5 
30.1 
47 
55.1 
63.3 
66.7 


41.8 
33.8 
58.3 
55.9 
45.4 
42.9 
34.7 
33.3 


54 5 


VIII 


50 


IX 


23 2 


X 


14 


XI 


7 6 


XII 


2 


XII + 


2 


XV 









Table 48 gives the results for suggestibility of school children. 



72 



48. Suggestibility of School Children at Each Physical 

Age 





Number 
tested 


Suggestibility 


physical age 


Not 
suggestible 


Suggestible 


Very- 
suggestible 


7 


30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 


7 
2 
6 
1 
7 
10 


20 
21 
15 
23 
20 
18 


3 


8 


7 


9 


9 


10 


6 


11 


3 


12 


2 







The work at Newark and Rome was finished before the 
method of scoring became uniform, and was tabulated in the 
form shown in Table 49. 



49. Table Showing Success and Suggestibility of Newark 

and Rome Cases 



mental age 



Number 
tested 



Average number giv- 
ing satisfactory 
account 



Not sug- 
gestible 



Sug- 
gestible 



Very sug- 
gestible 



A. Newark Cases 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

B. Rome Cases 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 





Number 


Per cent. 








9 


2 


22 






9 


35 


21 


60 


7 


13 


15 


39 


29 


74 


5 


19 


15 


26 


24 


92 


12 


11 


3 


17 


14 


82 


10 


4 


3 


3 


3 


100 


3 









13 


5 


38 




3 


*30 


13 


43 


2 


11 


*35 


23 


65 


6 


18 


11 


8 


72 


1 


8 


8 


7 


87 


1 


6 


5 


5 


100 


1 


3 



16 

10 

2 

1 

1 



* The degree of suggestibility is not recorded in one case, as the account given was too limite" 
to make it probable that suggestibility could be tested fairly. 

This indicates a higher proportion of very suggestible cases 
among the feeble-minded than among normal children of corre- 
sponding mental age. 

Value of the Test. — The test is one of the most valuable and 
significant ones for clinical purposes. It demands " attention, 



73 

observation, retention, recall and an ability to marsbal and 
formulate the items of experience in a verbal report." (Whipple 
12.) The object is to determine the capacity of the subject 
faithfully to report in spoken words the results of observation. 
Its advantages are (1) the simple material, (2) the interest 
which the picture never fails to evoke. It is probable that all 
children are somewhat suggestible, but the retention of this trait 
is a characteristic of the defective mind. For this reason the 
test is of little value for diagnostic work with children under 
nine years of age, in whose cases the answers are governed by 
imagination rather than accurate observation, by the tendency 
to give the reply which the form of question calls for, and the 
inability to express in words impressions received. Xo exact- 
method of using the test is offered here. The estimation of the 
result as well as the method of questioning must be left with the 
•examiner. In offering an insight into some phases of mental 
life this test fills a place untouched by any of the others. The 
ability to give a correct account of past events or experiences, 
and the independence and reliability of thought, both socially 
important traits, are measured to some extent. 



74 



9. PICTORIAL COMPLETION 

Description of Test and Material. — This test by Healy (4) is 
a bright picture on a uniformly colored background which sug- 
gests ten distinct activities, each one incomplete due to a square 
that has been cut from it. To fill in these square spaces there 
is a choice of 40 small pictures and 5 blanks any one of which 
will fit into any one of the spaces. Since no clue is given either 
by the color of the background or the shape of the pieces, the 
completion of each situation depends entirely upon the ideas 
expressed in the pictures. 

Method of Presentation. — The subject is led by questions to 
see the requirements for one situation, and is then left to his own 
devices to fill out the others. ~No suggestions as to a time ele- 
ment were made in this test, which is in accordance with Healy's 
conclusion that within reasonable limits the time is not of great 
importance. After the subject says he has finished he is given 
one more chance to make corrections. Then he is asked the 
reasons for his selections. 

Typical Reactions. — The errors may be divided into the rea- 
soning and unreasoning type. Healy has designated the follow- 
ing as rational: The unbroken window in place of the broken 
one ; the baseball in place of the football ; standing bird in place 
of the flying one; mouse or cat by the chicken; the cat walking 
away in place of the cat approaching the milk; purse in place of 
the hat; axe in place of the log on account of the strong associa- 
tion between the saw and the axe; baby under the tree in place 
of the basket, as the man is bringing him an apple. Whatever 
may be said in extenuation of these mistakes there is certainly 
enough logic in the correct choices to justify the expectation that 
thoughtful young persons will make them. 

On the other hand there are unreasoning errors where the hap- 
hazard performance results in such incongruous situations as 
the mild, yellow, sleeping cat made to chase an obviously terri- 
fied boy, or the red fish hanging in the air under the tree. 

Healy points out that as the picture was designed for children 
the situations are somewhat exaggerated and hence not satisfac- 
tory to the adult mind, which has the further disadvantage of 



75 



trying to read more into the picture than its face value. The 
Bureau observes that children do not criticise the pictures as do 
adults to justify themselves for the errors which they make. 

Method of Scoring. — The kind and number of errors are 
recorded and notes made upon the performance, the method of 
work and kind of reasoning employed being of great importance. 

Tabulation. — The pictorial completion test was used at 
Newark, at Albany, for part of the work at Troy and at Hudson 
and with the public school children. It calls for a degree of 
shrewdness in the combination of possibilities in which orphan 
asylum children have no training, which may account for the 
superiority of attainment of Healy's groups. He states (3, p. 
Ill) : "At 11 years this test should be readily accomplished 
with not more than 1 or 2 final errors, and certainly not more 
than 1 illogical error. The median or average performance for 
all in the group of those ordinary in ability above 10 years, is 1 
final error and no logical error.' 7 

Table 50 shows the distribution of errors for each of the 
mental ages with the median falling in the italicized groups. 

50. DISTRIBUTION OF ERRORS BY MENTAL AGES 



NUMBER OF 


Mental Age 


Total 


ERRORS 


VII 


VIII 


IX 


X 


XI 


XII 


XII + 


XV 







i" 

6 

4 

7 
13 
16M 

8 

9 
15 
13 
10 


2 

7 
19 
16 

34 M 
28 
13 
24 
12 

4 
12 


4 

7 
17 
21 

22M 

22 

15 

9 

7 

1 

1 


6 
10 

22 

20 M 
19 

8 

4 

3 

3 

1 


5 
8 
11M 
5 
7 
1 
1 

i" 


5 

14 

9M 
13 

5 

4 

1 


2 

1 
1 
1 


24 


1 




50 


2 




84 


3 




80 


4 


6 

6 

6 

6 

5 

6M 
17 
14 


101 


5 


83 


6 


56 


7 


50 


8 


37 


9 


27 


10 


43 


Failure* 


21 






Total 


66 


105 


171 


126 


96 


39 


51 


5 


659 







* Failure scored instead of number of errors. 



That this is considerably affected by the feeble-minded sub- 
jects is shown by Table 51, where the median of error for the 
feeble-minded is markedly lower than for normal children of 
corresponding mental ages. 



76 



51. Comparison of Results at Newark With Those at 

Albany and Troy 





Mental Age 


NUMBER 

OF 

ERRORS 


VII ' 


VIII 


IX 


X 


XI 


XII 


XII + 




A & T 


N 


A&T 


N 


A&T 


N 


A&T 


N 


A&T 


N 


A&T 


N 


A&T 


N 













2 

6 

8 

7 
15M 
11 

6 

3 

4 

1 


5 
3 

2 
10M 

7 

2 
10 


3 

4 
8 
11M 
8 
7 
3 
1 
1 


1 

o" 

3 

6M 

5 

4 


2 
3 

7 

5 
3 
1 


1 

1 
2 

AM 

2 

1 


3 

4 

2 
3 


"i 


2 
1 

1 
4 




1 






3 
4 
1 
2 
5 
10M 
2 
3 
1 
1 


... . 

2 

3 

2 

4 

6 
10M 
11 




2 








3 








4 


5 
3 
1 

AM 
2 
3 
8 


. ... 

1 
2 
2 

9M 




5 


l 






6 






7 


2 
1 










8 




l 






9 






10 




1 




























Total. . 


26 


15 


32 


39 


63 


41 


46 


25 


25 


14 


17 


3 


8 






Table 52 gives the comparison between the children in the two 
orphan asylums and the public school children of corresponding 
physical ages, and shows no constant variation although in Table 
53 the public school children failed to do as well as the orphan 
asylum children. 



52. Comparison of Results at Albany and Troy With 
School Children of Corresponding Physical Ages 



. NUMBER OF 
ERRORS 


A&T 
VII 


PS 

7 


A &T 
VIII 


PS 

8 


A&T 
IX 


PS 
9 


A&T 
X 


PS 
10 


A&T 
XI 


PS 
11 


A&T 
XII 


PS 
12 













2 

6 

8 

7 

InM 
11 

6 
3 
4 


3 
3 

4 

8M 

4 

4 

1 

2 

1 


3 
4 
8 
11M 
8 
7 
3 
1 
1 


2 

3 

4 

3 

7M 

6 

1 

3 


2 
3 

7 

AM 

5 

3 

1 


2 
6 
2 

7M 
6 

7 


3 

4 

5M 

2 

3 




1 




1 


3 
4 
1 
2 
5 
10M 
2 
3 
1 
1 


1 
3 

4 

4 

3M 

4 

3 

5 

3 

30 


4 


2 




4 


3 






7M 


4 


5 
3 
1 

AM 
2 
3 
8 


3 

4 
3 

AM 
3 
7 
5 


7 


5 


2 


6 


2 


7 






3 


8 










9 


1 








1 


10 . 


1 






























Total 


26 


30 


32 


63 


30 


46 


30 


25 


30 


17 


30 







77 



53. Average Number of Errors of Albany and Troy 
Children Compared With Those of Public School Chil- 
dren of Corresponding Physical Age 





Albany and Troy 


PHYSICAL 
AGE 


Public School 
Children 


mental age 


Number 
tested 


Average 
number 
of errors 


Number 
tested 


Average 
number 
of errors 


VII 


26 
32 
63 
46 

25 
17 


7.4 
5.1 
4.1 
3.3 

2.8 
1.9 


7 


30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 


7.2 


VIII 


8 


5.4 


IX 


9 


3.3 


X 


10 


3.8 


XI 


11 


3 


XII 


12 


3.8 



Success with this test seems to depend upon qualities that are 
lacking in the mentally defective, as a higher average of error 
is shown by them than by normal children of corresponding 
mentality as indicated by Table 54. 



54. Average Number of Errors of Women at Newark by 

Mental Ages 



mental age 


Number 
tested 


Average 
number 
of errors 


IV 


1 
2 
10 
15 
39 
41 
25 
14 
3 


10 


V 


9 5 


VI 


8 8 


VII 


9 06 


VIII 


8 05 


IX 


7 24 


X 


5.92 
3.71 
5 


XI 


XII 







It may be noted in Table 51 that two Newark cases did the 
puzzle without errors, and one with only one. These are high 
grade girls who are in the institution on account of social failure 
rather than low mentality. Healy found that 15 of the bright- 
est Vineland cases ranging in age from 16 to 33 showed the 
median of total errors to be 5, the median of illogical errors 4, 
with a range in total errors from 1 to 7, and illogical from to 7. 



78 

Value of the Test. — This test was originated to embody the 
points of the Ebbinghaus completion tests and at the same time be 
independent of the use of language on the part of the subject. 
With no guide except the meaning of the picture he must choose 
from forty pictures the ten that shall best fill the spaces. The 
ability to see the relationship between disconnected factors and 
the skill to follow incomplete situations to their logical conclusions 
belong to a high order of mentality, and the individual who demon- 
strates this ability by a good record with the pictorial completion 
test may generally speaking be considered to have a normal men- 
tality. The reverse, however, does not hold as is shown by records 
of ninety-five Wellesley College girls who had a range of error 
from to 8 with a median total of 2 errors. As a criterion of 
independent logical reasoning this test stands high. 



79 



10. TELLING TIME 

Description of Test and Material. — A cardboard clock face, 
the dial 4% inches in diameter on a card 5% inches square, with 
Roman numerals and with movable hands is used. This is easier 
than a small watch face. 

Method of Presentation. — The test is prefaced with the ques- 
tion, " Can you tell time ? " The test is then made for four posi- 
tions of the hands. First at an even hour, then at half past the 
hour, third at 20 or 25 minutes of the hour and fourth at something 
past; the first two combinations are arranged by the examiner, 
care being taken to present the dial with the XII at the top, while 
the subject makes the arrangement for the last two: 

Typical Reactions. — The even hour and half hour combina- 
tions are naturally the easiest, especially at the hours which have 
some special significance to the children, nine o'clock when school 
begins, half past three when it is over ; twelve o'clock is probably 
learned first. The functions of the long and short hands are fre- 
quently confused. 

Method of Scoring. — Credit is given only when all four com- 
binations are given correctly to the large divisions, i. e. 10 min- 
utes of 10 when the hand actually points to 9 minutes of 10. 
Partial success is not considered as it is desired to know when 
the subject is actually mastered. 

Tabulation. — Orphan asylum children make up a group pe- 
culiarly untaught in the matter of telling time since they depend 
upon the signal of a bell, rather than upon, a clock, for their daily 
routine; and for this reason the results presented in this table 
would probably not be borne out by children living a normal home 
life. However, it appears that there is a certain point where 
children know how to tell time regardless of its value to them 
which, it is surprising to find, does not come until an XI mental- 
ity is attained. Table 55 shows a uniformity of results in the 
three orphan asylums, and is valuable in showing where the abil- 
ity to tell time, independent of special teaching, arises. 



80 









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81 



Table 56 gives the records for 118 Hudson cases which show 
that these girls who presumably have spent part of their lives out- 
side an institution have not all learned to tell time and that it 
depends upon mental development rather than upon physical age. 



56. Number of Hudson Training School Girls Tested, 
Number and Per Cent. Successful in Telling Time at 
Each Mental Age. 



mental age 


Number 
tested 


Number 
successful 


Per cent, 
successful 


VIII 


7 
20 
30 
31 
13 

7 



11 
22 
22 
12 

7 


o 


IX 


55 


X 


73 3 


XI. 


71 


XII 


92 3 


XV 


100 







Figures on this subject are given in the Report of the Commis- 
sion to Investigate Provision for the Mentally Deficient (8) for 
536 feeble-minded and epileptic almshouse inmates, of whom 266 
or 49 per cent, were able to tell time, while 270 failed. Two hun 1 
dred and seventy-five of the number were males of whom 160 or 
58 per cent, were successful, and 261 were females of whom 106 
or 41 per cent, succeeded. The average of success is probably 
raised by the epileptics who in many cases have retained their 
mental powers to a considerable degree. 

Value of the Test. — In field work investigators require some 
simple questions to throw light upon suspected mental defect. 
Two such questions which have proved useful are: "How much 
is nine cents from a quarter ? " and " What time is it ? " 



82 



11. ANTONYMS 

Description of Test and Material. — With the 1908 form of the 
Binet-Simon Measuring iScale for Intelligence Healy's (5) modi- 
fication of the Thorndike list of antonyms was used. Later in 
the work the 1911 American revision of the Scale was adopted 
which includes the Thorndike list. This follows with Healy's 
words in parentheses: 



good 


loud 


like (dead) 


empty (war) 


outside 


white (black) 


rich 




war (empty) 


quick 


light 


sick 




many 


tall 


happy 


glad 




above 


big 


false (cheap) 


thin 




friend 



Method of Presentation. — The test was uniformly given orally 
with this explanation : " When I say one word I want you to say 
the word that means just the opposite, so when I say hot what will 
you say? r After the subject understands the problem the list is 
gone through rapidly. 

Typical Reactions. — For success with the antonym test two 
essential qualities are (1) the ability to hold the idea of giving 
opposites, and (2) the ability to select the word from one's 
vocabulary which contains the idea opposite to that of the given 
word. Mental defectives fail most often to hold the idea and the 
first lapse in giving opposites frequently sidetracks the remainder 
of the performance. Normal children on the other hand, even the 
seven year olds, seem to have little difficulty in this respect, and 
although they may be unable to think of the opposite of word 
after word, they give the correct answer as soon as they reach a 
word within their mental range. It frequently happens, too, that 
a similar may be given, followed directly by the correct opposites 
for the following words. Thus a normal mind can retrieve, a de- 
ficient mind usually cannot. 

That children reduce the words to concrete form before they 
think of the opposites is indicated by the choice of the opposites. 
Young children invariably give fat as the opposite of thin, while 
a few of the twelve year olds give stout. Thick is given only in a 



83 



few cases. The children often give small as the apposite of tall, 
possibly associating the word with themselves. One seven year 
old child gave naughty as the opposite of good. 

Occasionally the association of ideas is of interest as in the 
case of the girl in the institution who gave trouble as the oppo- 
site of outside. Another case described as No. 37 in Bulletin No. 
IV, (9, p. 67) " had a surprisingly varied vocabulary and in 
simply naming words fell into rhymes frequently as ' porch, 
pouch, couch, ouch ', with the remark, ' That's a good one \ He 
could not, however, hold the idea of the opposites ". This boy was 
sixteen years of age with a mentality of IX. Some subjects can- 
not retain the idea of giving opposites longer than the time it is 
actually being explained. Rhymes are sometimes given. 

Method of Scoring. — Seventeen correct answers are necessary 
for success with the antonyms. The kind of failure is noted, 
whether the subject lapses into similars, or gives mere associations. 
When the subject cannot retain the idea for more than the first- 
few words the test is recorded as a failure and no more time is 
spent unless continuation is likely to become illuminating from 
some other point of view. 

Tabulation. — To determine the expectation of success Table 
57 was arranged to show those successful at each physical and 
mental age. 



57. Number Tested, Number and Per Cent. Successful 
at Each Physical and Mental Age 



PHYSICAL 
AGE 


Number 
tested 


Number 

successful 


Per cent, 
successful 


MENTAL 
AGE 


Number 
tested 


Number 
successful 


Per cent, 
successful 


6 


1 
3 

8 
24 
34 
40 
36 
63 
60 
51 
52 
51 
40 
28 
126 


3 
8 
12 
10 
31 
25 
16 
23 
20 
23 
9 
42 


12.5 

23.5 

30 

27.8 

49.2 

41.7 

31.4 

44.2 

39.2 

57.5 

32.1 

33.3 




24 

153 

162 

154 

45 

63 

16 


1 
14 
35 
81 
34 
42 

15 




7 






8 


VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XII + 


4 2 


9 


9 1 


10 


21 6 


11 


52 6 


12 


75 5 


13 


66 6 


14 




15 


XV 


93 7 


16 




17 






18 




19. . 






20 or over . . 














Total . 


617 


222 


36 




617 


222 


30 









84 



The classification by mental development is more consistent 
than the one by chronological ages, due to the subjects upon 
whom the test was tried, as most of those over fourteen were 
either known or suspected to be feeble-minded. 

Table 58 which gives the results with the public school chil- 
dren shows that with them the eleven year children came close to 
the twelve year olds in their success with the test. 



58. Number of Public School Children Tested, Number 
and Per Cent. Successful 



physical age 


Number 
tested 


Number 
successful 


Per cent, 
successful 


7 


30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 


8 
15 
15 
25 
26 




8 


26.6 


9 


50 


10. . 


50 


11 


83.3 


12 


86.6 







The next question under consideration is the relative dif- 
ficulty of the words. Below, the words are arranged in order of 
difficulty upon the basis of the per cent, of failures. Owing to 
the substitution of three words by Healy there are twenty-three 
words to be considered. 

59. Words Arranged According to Difficulty With Per 

Cent, of Failures 



word 



1 . good. . . 

2. outside 

3. rich... 

4. thin. . . 

5. big . . . 

6. empty. 

7. light... 

8. black . 

9. white. . 

10. quick . 

11. tall.... 

12. above.. 



Per cent, 
of failures 



2.8 

3.5 

3.9 

8.6 

12.1 

13.6 

14.3 

14.3 

15.2 

15.8 

16.4 

18.6 



WORD 



13. dead.. 

14. sick . . 

15. loud.. 

16. happy, 

17. glad.. 

18. like... 

19. cheap. 

20. friend. 

21. many 

22. war... 

23. false . 



Per cent, 
of failures 



20.5 
21.8 
25.1 
28.1 
34.2 
38.7 
46.1 
50.6 
57.1 
60.4 
71.6 



From this it appears that there was little advantage in chang- 
ing white to black. False proved to be the hardest word on the 
list with 71 per cent, of failure, while cheap, which Healy has 



85 



put in its place is well toward the end of the list with 46 per 
cent, failure. Dead is somewhat easier than like for which it is 
substituted. 

As false and war are the hardest words on the list, a study was 
made to see what would be the effect if credit were given for 
these two words. Table CO gives the result. 

60. Table Showing Increased Number Who Passed When 
Given Credit for the Hard Words False and War 



mental age 


Number 
tested 


Number 

successful 

anyway 


Number 

made 

successful 

when false 

and war 

were 
allowed 


Total 

now 

successful 


Per cent, 
previously 
successful 


Per cent. 

now 
successful 


VIII 


24 

153 

162 

154 

45 

63 

16 


1 
14 
35 
81 
34 
42 
15 


1 
5 
20 
22 
2 
4 
1 


2 
19 
55 
103 
36 
46 
16 


4.2 
9.1 
21.6 
52.6 
75.5 
66.6 
93.7 


8.3 


IX 


12.4 


X 


34 


XI 


66.9 


XII 


80 


XII + 


73 


XV 


100 







Further study shows that of all persons asked to tell the 
antonym of "false" only 58 succeeded, and 55 of these were 
over twelve years old physically. Mentally the largest number 
fell at XI years, although not a single one was eleven years 
old physically. In other words, the idea involved in false could 
be treated by XI year children if they knew the word, but this 
word comes into the vocabulary relatively late, and persons must 
be thirteen or more years of age before they can be expected to 
know the word false in relation to its antonym. If 75.5 per 
cent, of XII year persons can pass the antonym test with all 
the present difficult words in it, it would not be impossible, by 
substituting somewhat easier words for those of greatest dif- 
ficulty, to make a list of antonyms which would be distinctly a 
twelve year test. 

Value of the Test. — The test is one for which a ready use of 
the English language is essential. Where no language difficulty 
exists the test is a valuable one, since it deals directly with 
mental content, with the ability to repress irrelevant ideas, and 
to maintain a definite train of thought. It calls exclusively for 
abstract thought which accompanies mature mental development. 



86 



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2. Goddard, Henry H. — The form board as a measure of in- 
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IX, No. 4, June, 1912. pp. 49-54. 

3. Healy, William. — The individual delinquent Boston. 
Little, Brown & Co. 1915. 830 p. 

4. Healy, William. — A pictorial completion test. The Psy- 
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5. Healy, William and Fernald, Grace Maxwell. — Tests for 
practical mental classification. The Psychological Monographs, 
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Princeton University. 53 p. 

6. Knox, Howard A. — A scale, based on the work at Ellis 
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7. Mlinsterberg, Hugo. — Psychology, General and Applied. 
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8. New York Commission to Investigate Provision for the 
Mentally Deficient. Report of the Commission to Investigate 
Provision for the Mentally Deficient. Albany. 1915. 

9. New York State Board of Charities. — Report on fifty-two 
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10. Sylvester, Reuel Hull. — The form board test. A thesis 
presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the Univer- 
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11. Wallin, J. E. Wallace. — Experimental Studies of mental 
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12. Whipple, Guy Montrose. — Manual of mental and physi- 
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87 

13. Whipple, Guy Montrose. — Manual of mental and physical 
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14. Woodworth, R. W. and Wells, Frederick Lyman. — As- 
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